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Identification of the Nogo inhibitor of axon regeneration as a Reticulon protein
Adult mammalian axon regeneration is generally successful in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) but is dismally poor in the central nervous system (CNS). However, many classes of CNS axons canExpand
Activation of innate immunity in the CNS triggers neurodegeneration through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway
Innate immunity is an evolutionarily ancient system that provides organisms with immediately available defense mechanisms through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. We show thatExpand
The Toll-Like Receptor TLR4 Is Necessary for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oligodendrocyte Injury in the CNS
The immediate or innate immune response is the first line of defense against diverse microbial pathogens and requires the expression of recently discovered toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR4 serves asExpand
Localization of Nogo-A and Nogo-66 Receptor Proteins at Sites of Axon–Myelin and Synaptic Contact
Axon regeneration in the adult CNS is limited by the presence of inhibitory proteins. An interaction of Nogo on the oligodendrocyte surface with Nogo-66 Receptor (NgR) on axons has been suggested toExpand
T lymphocytes potentiate endogenous neuroprotective inflammation in a mouse model of ALS
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, progressive, motor neuron degenerative disease, in which the role of inflammation is not well established. Innate and adaptive immunity wereExpand
Hyaluronan blocks oligodendrocyte progenitor maturation and remyelination through TLR2
Failure of remyelination is largely responsible for sustained neurologic symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions contain hyaluronan deposits that inhibit oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)Expand
Integrin-linked kinase is required for laminin-2–induced oligodendrocyte cell spreading and CNS myelination
Early steps in myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) include a specialized and extreme form of cell spreading in which oligodendrocytes extend large lamellae that spiral around axons toExpand
Toll-like receptor 8 functions as a negative regulator of neurite outgrowth and inducer of neuronal apoptosis
Toll receptors in Drosophila melanogaster function in morphogenesis and host defense. Mammalian orthologues of Toll, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), have been studied extensively for their essentialExpand
Peroxynitrite generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase mediates microglial toxicity to oligodendrocytes.
Reactive microglia in the CNS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of white matter disorders, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis. However, the mechanism by whichExpand
Toll-Like Receptor 3 Is a Potent Negative Regulator of Axonal Growth in Mammals
Toll is a cell surface receptor with well described roles in the developmental patterning of invertebrates and innate immunity in adult Drosophila. Mammalian toll-like receptors represent a family ofExpand