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Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers 1 Dedicated to Professor Dr. Klaus
Abstract The occurrence of 32 drug residues belonging to different medicinal classes like antiphlogistics, lipid regulators, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drugs, betablockers and β 2
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?
TLDR
This review attempts to synthesize the literature on environmental origin, distribution/occurrence, and effects and to catalyze a more focused discussion in the environmental science community.
Occurrence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment.
TLDR
From the large number of ground water samples that were taken from agricultural areas in Germany, no contamination by antibiotics was detected except for two sites, which indicates that intake from veterinary applications to the aquatic environment is of minor importance.
Behavior and occurrence of estrogens in municipal sewage treatment plants--I. Investigations in Germany, Canada and Brazil.
TLDR
The developed method enables the quantification of estrogens in sewage samples down to 1 ng/l and in river water down to 0.5 ng/ l and the behavior and occurrence of natural estrogens and synthetic contraceptives in municipal sewage treatment plants were investigated in German and Canadian facilities.
Behaviour and occurrence of estrogens in municipal sewage treatment plants--II. Aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge.
TLDR
The batch experiments showed that while in contact with activated sludge the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol was oxidized to estrone, which was further eliminated in the batch experiments in an approximate linear time dependence, so that the concentrations of the free estrogens increase.
Behavior of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and hormones in a sewage treatment plant.
TLDR
The concentration of estrone increased along the treatment due to the partial oxidation of 17beta-estradiol in the aeration tank, and the overall removal efficiencies within the STP ranged between 70-90% for the fragrances, 40-65% forThe anti-inflammatories, around 65% for 17 beta-ESTradiol and 60% for sulfamethoxazole.
Biological degradation of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater treatment: proposing a classification scheme.
TLDR
W Wastewater segregation and treatment at the source are to be favoured for elimination of persistent micropollutants over centralized end-of-pipe treatment.
Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media and musk fragrances from wastewater?
TLDR
A pilot plant for ozonation and UV-disinfection received effluent from a German municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) to test the removal of pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and musk fragrances from municipal wastewater, finding that advanced oxidation processes did not lead significantly to a higher removal efficiency for the ICM than ozone alone.
Fate of estrogens in a municipal sewage treatment plant.
TLDR
The main outcome of the study was that a common municipal STP with an activated sludge system for nitrification and denitrification including sludge recirculation can appreciably eliminate natural and synthetic estrogens.
A rapid method to measure the solid-water distribution coefficient (Kd) for pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances in sewage sludge.
TLDR
The removal rate from the water phase caused by sorption in a WWTP can be reasonably predicted on the basis of the Kd values, which ranged from <1 to 500 L kg(-1), while those for the polycyclic musk fragrances AHTN and HHCB proved to be up to 5300 and 4900 L kg−1, respectively.
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