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The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals
Following concepts introduced by Markus and Kitayama, this study describes the theoretical and empirical development of a scale to measure the strength of an individual's interdependent andExpand
Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism: A Theoretical and Measurement Refinement
In developing a new scale, this article makes theoretical and measurement distinctions between vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Vertical collectivism includes perceiving theExpand
Emotional Contagion
Theorists have proposed that men and women and those in various occupational groups should differ in their susceptibility to primitive emotional contagion. Study 1 was designed to explore the extentExpand
Social Axioms
To broaden our conceptual framework for understanding cultural differences, the present article reports two studies that examined whether pancultural dimensions based on general beliefs, or socialExpand
Culture-Level Dimensions of Social Axioms and Their Correlates across 41 Cultures
Leung and colleagues have revealed a five-dimensional structure of social axioms across individuals from five cultural groups. The present research was designed to reveal the culture level factorExpand
Pancultural explanations for life satisfaction: adding relationship harmony to self-esteem.
The first part of the study confirmed an additive effect of the newly proposed construct of relationship harmony to self-esteem in predicting life satisfaction across student samples from the UnitedExpand
Culture, self, and collectivist communication: linking culture to individual behavior.
This study develops and demonstrates a theoretical framework and corresponding methodology to link variables at the culture level to the individual level and, then, to specific outcome variables. TheExpand
Pancultural explanations for life satisfaction: adding relationship harmony to self-esteem.
The first part of the study confirmed an additive effect of the newly proposed construct of relationship harmony to self-esteem in predicting life satisfaction across student samples from the UnitedExpand
Convergent validation of the Social Axioms Survey
Social axioms are generalized statement beliefs about oneself, the social and physical environment, or the spiritual world. A recently developed measure of social axioms was validated in a sample ofExpand
Culture, Self-Construal, and Embarrassability
This study investigates individual and cultural differences in embarrassability (i.e., susceptibility to embarrassment). Three hypotheses are formulated. First, the strength of the independentExpand
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