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Nonstructural proteins NS2-3 and NS4A of classical swine fever virus: essential features for infectious particle formation.
The nonstructural protein NS2-3 of pestiviruses undergoes tightly regulated processing. For bovine viral diarrhea virus it was shown that uncleaved NS2-3 is required for infectious particle formationExpand
Caprine PRNP polymorphisms at codons 171, 211, 222 and 240 in a Greek herd and their association with classical scrapie.
The association between PRNP variation and scrapie incidence was investigated in a highly affected Greek goat herd. Four mutations were identified at codons 171Q/R, 211R/Q, 222Q/K and 240P/S. LysineExpand
PRNP promoter polymorphisms are associated with BSE susceptibility in Swiss and German cattle
BackgroundNon-synonymous polymorphisms within the prion protein gene (PRNP) influence the susceptibility and incubation time for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in some species suchExpand
Diversity in Neuroanatomical Distribution of Abnormal Prion Protein in Atypical Scrapie
Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in sheep and goats. In recent years, atypical scrapie cases were identified that differed from classical scrapie in the molecularExpand
Neurotropic Astrovirus in Cattle with Nonsuppurative Encephalitis in Europe
ABSTRACT Encephalitis is a frequently diagnosed condition in cattle with neurological diseases. Many affected animals present with a nonsuppurative inflammatory reaction pattern in the brain. WhileExpand
Identification of classical swine fever virus protein E2 as a target for cytotoxic T cells by using mRNA-transfected antigen-presenting cells.
Vaccination of pigs against Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) by using live-virus vaccines induces early protection before detectable humoral immune responses. Immunological analyses indicate thatExpand
Atypical Scrapie in a Swiss Goat and Implications for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Surveillance
Different types of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect sheep and goats. In addition to the classical form of scrapie, both species are susceptible to experimental infections withExpand
An Unusual Splice Defect in the Mitofusin 2 Gene (MFN2) Is Associated with Degenerative Axonopathy in Tyrolean Grey Cattle
Tyrolean Grey cattle represent a local breed with a population size of ∼5000 registered cows. In 2003, a previously unknown neurological disorder was recognized in Tyrolean Grey cattle. The clinicalExpand
Identification of a second encephalitis-associated astrovirus in cattle
Dear Editor, Human astroviruses are of particular importance as one of the most common pathogens that cause juvenile gastroenteritis. In recent years, several astrovirus isolates were identified asExpand
Exploring the virome of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis of unknown etiology by metagenomics.
Non-suppurative encephalitis is one of the most frequent pathological diagnosis in cattle with neurological disease, but there is a gap in the knowledge on disease-associated pathogens. In order toExpand