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Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms
A series of findings over the past decade has begun to identify the brain circuitry and neurotransmitters that regulate our daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness. The latter depends on a network ofExpand
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Narcolepsy in orexin Knockout Mice Molecular Genetics of Sleep Regulation
Neurons containing the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) are located exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus and send axons to numerous regions throughout the central nervous system, including theExpand
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Afferents to the orexin neurons of the rat brain
Emotions, stress, hunger, and circadian rhythms all promote wakefulness and behavioral arousal. Little is known about the pathways mediating these influences, but the orexin‐producing neurons of theExpand
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Sleep State Switching
We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allowExpand
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Fos Expression in Orexin Neurons Varies with Behavioral State
The neuropeptide orexin (also known as hypocretin) is hypothesized to play a critical role in the regulation of sleep–wake behavior. Lack of orexin produces narcolepsy, which is characterized by poorExpand
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Hypothalamic Arousal Regions Are Activated during Modafinil-Induced Wakefulness
Modafinil is an increasingly popular wake-promoting drug used for the treatment of narcolepsy, but its precise mechanism of action is unknown. To determine potential pathways via which modafinilExpand
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Melanopsin in cells of origin of the retinohypothalamic tract
All known eukaryotic organisms exhibit physiological and behavioral rhythms termed circadian rhythms that cycle with a near-24-hour period; in mammals, light is the most potent stimulus forExpand
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Critical Role of Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus in a Wide Range of Behavioral Circadian Rhythms
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains the brain's circadian pacemaker, but mechanisms by which it controls circadian rhythms of sleep and related behaviors are poorly understood. PreviousExpand
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Regulation of Daily Locomotor Activity and Sleep by Hypothalamic EGF Receptor Signaling
The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is thought to drive daily rhythms of behavior by secreting factors that act locally within the hypothalamus. In a systematic screen, weExpand
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Homeostatic, circadian, and emotional regulation of sleep
A good night's sleep is one of life's most satisfying experiences, while sleeplessness is stressful and causes cognitive impairment. Yet the mechanisms that regulate the ability to sleep have onlyExpand
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