By its very nature, the second law of thermodynamics is probabilistic, in that its formulation requires a probabilistic description of the state of a system. This raises questions about the… Expand

Feedback mechanisms such as the ‘demon’ in Maxwell’s well-known thought experiment can, in principle, enable the transformation of information into energy, without violating the second law of… Expand

The fundamental lower bounds on the thermodynamic energy cost of measurement and information erasure are determined and constitute the second law of "information thermodynamics," in which information content and thermodynamic variables are treated on an equal footing.Expand

The Jarzynski equality is generalized to situations in which nonequilibrium systems are subject to a feedback control, and an "information ratchet" is introduced, which can transport a Brownian particle in one direction and extract positive work from the particle.Expand

The result implies that the entropy production in a single system in the presence of multiple other systems is bounded by the information flow between these systems, which is similar to the second law of thermodynamics.Expand

We review and investigate the general theory of the thermodynamics of computation, and derive the fundamental inequalities that set the lower bounds of the work requirement and the heat emission… Expand

The fluctuation theorem is established in the presence of information exchange between a nonequilibrium system and other degrees of freedom such as an observer and a feedback controller, and the resulting generalized second law sets the fundamental limit of energy dissipation and energy cost during the information exchange.Expand

A general theory of feedback control on classical stochastic thermodynamic systems is established and nonequilibrium equalities such as the fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality are generalized.Expand

A new thermodynamic inequality is derived which leads to the maximum work that can be extracted from multi-heat-baths with the assistance of discrete quantum feedback control, and this maximum work can exceed that in conventional thermodynamics.Expand

It is shown that the second law of thermodynamics with information reveals the fundamental limit of the robustness of signal transduction against environmental fluctuations, and the degree of robustness is quantitatively characterized by an informational quantity called transfer entropy.Expand