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Direct conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons by defined factors
TLDR
This work identified a combination of only three factors, Ascl1, Brn2 and Myt1l, that suffice to rapidly and efficiently convert mouse embryonic and postnatal fibroblasts into functional neurons in vitro, and induced neuronal (iN) cells express multiple neuron-specific proteins, generate action potentials and form functional synapses. Expand
The synaptic vesicle cycle
TLDR
Insight into how Munc18-1 collaborates with SNARE proteins in fusion, how the vesicular Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin 1 triggers fast release, and how thevesicular Rab3 protein regulates release by binding to the active zone proteins RIM1 alpha and RIM2 alpha has advanced the understanding of neurotransmitter release. Expand
Membrane Fusion: Grappling with SNARE and SM Proteins
TLDR
The two universally required components of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery, SNARE and SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) proteins, play complementary roles in fusion and are spectacularly apparent in the exquisite speed and precision of synaptic exocytosis. Expand
Neuroligins and neurexins link synaptic function to cognitive disease
TLDR
This work has shown that alterations in genes encoding neurexins or neuroligins have recently been implicated in autism and other cognitive diseases, linking synaptic cell adhesion to cognition and its disorders. Expand
The synaptic vesicle cycle: a cascade of protein–protein interactions
TLDR
A convergence of results now allows formulation of molecular models for key steps of the synaptic vesicle cycle, which may form the basis for a mechanistic understanding of higher neural function. Expand
SynCAM, a Synaptic Adhesion Molecule That Drives Synapse Assembly
TLDR
Glutamatergic synaptic transmission was reconstituted in nonneuronal cells by coexpressing glutamate receptors with SynCAM, which suggests that a single type of adhesion molecule and glutamate receptor are sufficient for a functional postsynaptic response. Expand
Synaptotagmin I: A major Ca2+ sensor for transmitter release at a central synapse
TLDR
It is proposed that synaptotagmin I is the major low affinity Ca2+ sensor mediating Ca2-regulation of synchronous neurotransmitter release in hippocampal neurons and not essential for asynchronous or Ca(2+)-independent release. Expand
Synaptic assembly of the brain in the absence of neurotransmitter secretion.
TLDR
Synaptic connectivity does not depend on neurotransmitter secretion, but its maintenance does, and neurotransmitter secretion probably functions to validate already established synaptic connections. Expand
Rapid Single-Step Induction of Functional Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
TLDR
It is shown that human ESCs and iPSCs can be converted into functional iN cells with nearly 100% yield and purity in less than 2 weeks by forced expression of a single transcription factor. Expand
RIM1α forms a protein scaffold for regulating neurotransmitter release at the active zone
TLDR
It is shown that RIM1α, an active zone protein that was identified as a putative effector for the synaptic vesicle protein Rab3A, interacts with several active zone molecules, including Munc13-1 and α-liprins, to form a protein scaffold in the presynaptic nerve terminal that controls neurotransmitter release. Expand
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