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Direct conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons by defined factors
Cellular differentiation and lineage commitment are considered to be robust and irreversible processes during development. Recent work has shown that mouse and human fibroblasts can be reprogrammedExpand
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The synaptic vesicle cycle
▪ Abstract Neurotransmitter release is mediated by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic active zone of nerve terminals. To support rapid and repeated rounds of release, synapticExpand
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Membrane Fusion: Grappling with SNARE and SM Proteins
The two universally required components of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery, SNARE and SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) proteins, play complementary roles in fusion. Vesicular and targetExpand
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Neuroligins and neurexins link synaptic function to cognitive disease
The brain processes information by transmitting signals at synapses, which connect neurons into vast networks of communicating cells. In these networks, synapses not only transmit signals but alsoExpand
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SynCAM, a Synaptic Adhesion Molecule That Drives Synapse Assembly
Synapses, the junctions between nerve cells through which they communicate, are formed by the coordinated assembly and tight attachment of pre- and postsynaptic specializations. We now show thatExpand
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The synaptic vesicle cycle: a cascade of protein–protein interactions
The synaptic vesicle cycle at the nerve terminal consists of vesicle exocytosis with neuro-transmitter release, endocytosis of empty vesicles, and regeneration of fresh vesicles. Of all cellularExpand
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Synaptic assembly of the brain in the absence of neurotransmitter secretion.
Brain function requires precisely orchestrated connectivity between neurons. Establishment of these connections is believed to require signals secreted from outgrowing axons, followed by synapseExpand
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Synaptotagmin I: A major Ca2+ sensor for transmitter release at a central synapse
Mice carrying a mutation in the synaptotagmin I gene were generated by homologous recombination. Mutant mice are phenotypically normal as heterozygotes, but die within 48 hr after birth asExpand
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RIM1α forms a protein scaffold for regulating neurotransmitter release at the active zone
Neurotransmitters are released by synaptic vesicle fusion at the active zone. The active zone of a synapse mediates Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release, and integrates presynaptic signals inExpand
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RIBEYE, a Component of Synaptic Ribbons A Protein's Journey through Evolution Provides Insight into Synaptic Ribbon Function
Photoreceptor cells utilize ribbon synapses to transmit sensory signals at high resolution. Ribbon synapses release neurotransmitters tonically, with a high release rate made possible by continuousExpand
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