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In search of the visual pigment template
Absorbance spectra were recorded by microspectrophotometry from 39 different rod and cone types representing amphibians, reptiles, and fishes, with A1- or A2-based visual pigments and λmax ranging
Visual performance of the toad (Bufo bufo) at low light levels: retinal ganglion cell responses and prey-catching accuracy
The results in weak but clearly supra-threshold illumination indicate that snaps were aimed at the advancing head as seen by the brain, but landed further backwards in proportion to the retinal latency, suggesting that the animal had recourse to a neural representation of the regularly moving dummies to correct for the slowness of vision.
Low retinal noise in animals with low body temperature allows high visual sensitivity
The performance of dark-adapted toads and frogs is studied and it is shown that the performance limit of visually guided behaviour is also set by thermal isomerizations, as visual sensitivity limited by thermal events should rise when the temperature falls.
Rhodopsin and Porphyropsin Fields In the Adult Bullfrog Retina
The present observations show that the retina of the adult frog may contain as much as 30–40% porphyropsin, all of it segregated in the dorsal zone, which has some ecological importance in increasing the retinal sensitivity to the dimmer and, on occasion, redder light received from below.
Magnetophosphenes: a quantitative analysis of thresholds
The present magnetic threshold curves show a close resemblance to corresponding curves obtained by electric stimulation at various frequencies provided the electric thresholds are divided by the a.c. frequency.
Molecular basis of dark adaptation in rod photoreceptors
Results obtained by exposing isolated toad rods to hydroxylamine solution indicate that, following small bleaches, the primary intermediate causing elevation of visual threshold is metarhodopsin II, in its phosphorylated and arrestin-bound form.
Retinal origins of the temperature effect on absolute visual sensitivity in frogs.
It is concluded that the desensitization of dark‐adapted vision with rising temperature is a retinal effect composed of shortened summation time and lowered flash sensitivity (increased numbers of photons required for a threshold response) in ganglion cells.
Fifty years of dark adaptation 1961–2011
  • T. Reuter
  • Biology
    Vision Research
  • 1 November 2011
The Physics and Biology of Olfaction and Taste
This volume adheres to an anatomical basis for distinguishing between chemical sense organs, as it embraces the inclusion of olfaction, vomeronasal sense, and gustation.