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Agrochemicals increase trematode infections in a declining amphibian species
It is shown that the widely used herbicide, atrazine, was the best predictor of the abundance of larval trematodes in the declining northern leopard frog Rana pipiens, and analysis of field data supported a causal mechanism whereby both agrochemicals increase exposure and susceptibility to larval Trematodes by augmenting snail intermediate hosts and suppressing amphibian immunity.
Understanding the net effects of pesticides on amphibian trematode infections.
- J. Rohr, T. Raffel, S. Sessions, P. Hudson
- BiologyEcological applications : a publication of the…
- 1 October 2008
The reduction in exposure to trematodes due to pesticides-induced cercarial mortality was smaller than the pesticide-induced increase in amphibian susceptibility (a trait-mediated effect), suggesting that the net effect of exposure to environmentally realistic levels of pesticides will be to elevate amphibian trematode infections.
Negative effects of changing temperature on amphibian immunity under field conditions
It is suggested that temperature variability causes increased susceptibility of amphibians to infection, and they have implications for the emergence of disease and the potential for climate change to exacerbate amphibian decline.
Disease and thermal acclimation in a more variable and unpredictable climate
- T. Raffel, J. Romansic, Neal T Halstead, T. McMahon, Matthew D. Venesky, J. Rohr
- Environmental Science
- 1 February 2013
A theoretical framework for how temperature variation and its predictability influence disease risk by affecting host and parasite acclimation responses is presented and evidence that unpredictable temperature fluctuations decrease frog resistance to the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is provided.
Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines
- J. Rohr, T. Raffel, J. Romansic, H. McCallum, P. Hudson
- Environmental ScienceProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 11 November 2008
It is shown that there is spatial structure to the timing of Atelopus spp.
Parasitism in a community context: trait-mediated interactions with competition and predation.
Predation and competition can induce important density- and trait-mediated effects on species, with implications for community stability. However, interactions of these factors with parasitism remain…
Parasites, info-disruption, and the ecology of fear
The magnitude of anti-parasite and anti-predator responses were qualitatively similar, suggesting that the fear of disease and its ecological consequences could be comparable to that of predation.
Linking global climate and temperature variability to widespread amphibian declines putatively caused by disease
It is suggested that changes to temperature variability associated with climate change might be as significant to biodiversity losses and disease emergence as changes to mean temperature.
Frontiers in climate change–disease research