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Evidence for terror management theory II: The effects of mortality salience on reactions to those who threaten or bolster the cultural worldview.
Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis, derived from terror management theory, that reminding people of their mortality increases attraction to those who consensually validate their
Evidence for terror management theory: I. The effects of mortality salience on reactions to those who violate or uphold cultural values.
It is shown that the mortality salience effect does not result from heightened self-awareness or physiological arousal, and implications for the role of fear of death in social behavior are discussed.
The Causes and Consequences of a Need for Self-Esteem: A Terror Management Theory
Throughout the past few thousand years, historical accounts, philosophical treatises, and works of fiction and poetry have often depicted humans as having a need to perceive themselves as good, and
A dual-process model of defense against conscious and unconscious death-related thoughts: an extension of terror management theory.
Proximal defenses, which entail suppressing death-related thoughts or pushing the problem of death into the distant future by denying one's vulnerability, are rational, threat-focused, and activated when thoughts of death are in current focal attention.
Role of consciousness and accessibility of death-related thoughts in mortality salience effects.
Findings suggest that mortality salience effects are unique to thoughts of death and occur primarily when such thoughts are highly accessible but outside of consciousness.
Terror management theory and self-esteem: evidence that increased self-esteem reduces mortality salience effects.
The results of Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that self-esteem would reduce the worldview defense produced by mortality salience, and suggested that the effects of the first 2 experiments may have occurred because high self- esteem facilitates the suppression of death constructs following MS.
Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review.
Terror management theory (TMT) is compared with other explanations for why people need self-esteem, and a critique of the most prominent of these, sociometer theory, is provided.
Terror management and aggression: evidence that mortality salience motivates aggression against worldview-threatening others.
The hypothesis that mortality salience motivates aggression against worldview-threatening others was tested and it was found that derogation and aggression are two alternative modes of responding to MS that serve the same psychological function.