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Neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is central to the dynamic control of brain microcirculation
TLDR
In vivo blockade of glutamate-mediated [Ca2+]i elevations in astrocytes reduced the blood flow increase in the somatosensory cortex during contralateral forepaw stimulation and showed that neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is a key mechanism in functional hyperemia. Expand
Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses.
TLDR
The spatial relation between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in living HeLa cells was analyzed at high resolution in three dimensions with two differently colored, specifically targeted green fluorescent proteins to emphasize the importance of cell architecture and the distribution of organelles in regulation of Ca2+ signaling. Expand
BAX and BAK Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+: A Control Point for Apoptosis
TLDR
BAX and BAK operate in both the ER and mitochondria as an essential gateway for selected apoptotic signals, and targeting of BAX to mitochondria selectively restored apoptosis to “BH3-only” signals. Expand
Intracellular Calcium Oscillations in Astrocytes: A Highly Plastic, Bidirectional Form of Communication between Neurons and Astrocytes In Situ
TLDR
It is shown here that stimulation of neuronal afferents triggered periodic [Ca2+]i oscillations in astrocytes, which represent a highly plastic signaling system that underlies the reciprocal communication between neurons and astroCytes. Expand
Prostaglandins stimulate calcium-dependent glutamate release in astrocytes
TLDR
It is shown that coactivation of the AMPA/kainate and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) on astrocytes stimulates these cells to release glutamate through a Ca2+-dependent process mediated by prostaglandins, revealing a new pathway of regulated transmitter release from astroCytes and outlining the existence of an integrated glutamatergic cross-talk between neurons and astroicytes in situ. Expand
Neuronal Synchrony Mediated by Astrocytic Glutamate through Activation of Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors
TLDR
The results reveal a distinct mechanism for neuronal excitation and synchrony and highlight a functional link between astrocytic glutamate and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Expand
Microdomains of intracellular Ca2+: molecular determinants and functional consequences.
TLDR
This review discusses the structural and functional bases that generate the subcellular heterogeneity in cellular Ca(2+) levels at rest and under stimulation, and focuses on the molecular mechanisms that lead to the generation of cytoplasmic Ca( 2+) microdomains, focusing on their different sub cellular location, mechanism of generation, and functional role. Expand
Proapoptotic BAX and BAK regulate the type 1 inositol trisphosphate receptor and calcium leak from the endoplasmic reticulum.
TLDR
The findings support a model in which BCL-2 family members regulate IP3R-1 phosphorylation to control the rate of ER Ca(2+) leak from intracellular stores. Expand
Microdomains with high Ca2+ close to IP3-sensitive channels that are sensed by neighboring mitochondria.
TLDR
It is concluded that in vivo, domains of high [Ca2+]i are transiently generated close to IP3-gated channels and sensed by nearby mitochondria; this may provide an efficient mechanism for optimizing mitochondrial activity upon cell stimulation. Expand
Cytoplasmic pH and free Mg2+ in lymphocytes
TLDR
Measurements have been made of cytoplasmic pH, (pHi) and free Mg2+ concentration, ( [Mg2 +]i), in pig and mouse lymphocytes, and Mitogenic concentrations of concanavalin A (Con A) had no measurable effect on pH in the first hour. Expand
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