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Kepler Mission Design, Realized Photometric Performance, and Early Science
The Kepler Mission, launched on 2009 March 6, was designed with the explicit capability to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars using the transit photometry method.
The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe
TLDR
Direct atmospheric measurements from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), including altitude profiles of the constituents, isotopic ratios and trace species (including organic compounds), were reported, confirming the primary constituents were confirmed to be nitrogen and methane.
The composition of the Jovian atmosphere as determined by the Galileo probe mass spectrometer.
TLDR
Analysis of some of the constituents detected suggests that icy planetesimals made significant contributions to the volatile inventory, and (4) a moderate decrease in D/H but no detectable change in (D + 3He)/H in this part of the galaxy during the past 4.6 Gyr.
Composition of Titan's lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the Cassini‐Huygens probe gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment
[1] The Cassini-Huygens probe gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from ∼140 km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a Jupiter family comet with a high D/H ratio
TLDR
The direct in situ measurement of the D/H ratio in the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the ROSINA mass spectrometer aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft is found to be (5.3 ± 0.7) × 10−4—that is, approximately three times the terrestrial value.
Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater
TLDR
Curiosity confirms the presence and variability of atmospheric methane, implying episodic production from an unknown source, and reports of plumes or patches of methane in the martian atmosphere that vary over monthly time scales have defied explanation.
Voyager 2 at Neptune: Imaging Science Results
Voyager 2 images of Neptune reveal a windy planet characterized by bright clouds of methane ice suspended in an exceptionally clear atmosphere above a lower deck of hydrogen sulfide or ammonia ices.
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