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Human IL-23-producing type 1 macrophages promote but IL-10-producing type 2 macrophages subvert immunity to (myco)bacteria.
TLDR
IL-23 rather than IL-12 is the primary type 1 cytokine produced by activated proinflammatory Mphi-1, indicating that Mphi heterogeneity thus may be an important determinant of immunity and disease outcome in intracellular bacterial infection. Expand
Phenotypic and functional profiling of human proinflammatory type‐1 and anti‐inflammatory type‐2 macrophages in response to microbial antigens and IFN‐γ‐ and CD40L‐mediated costimulation
TLDR
It is remarkable that Mφ‐2 secreted high levels of IL‐8, MCP‐1, IP‐10, MIP‐1β, and RANTES, suggesting an active role for these cells in regulating cellular immunity and homeostasis, and demonstrates how M φ‐1/M⩽2 polarization can differentially skew the host response toward pro‐ or anti‐inflammatory immune responses, respectively. Expand
The effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the presentation and treatment response of pulmonary tuberculosis.
TLDR
DM seems to have a negative effect on the outcome of TB treatment, and the underlying mechanisms for the different response to treatment in diabetic patients with TB must be explored. Expand
Human Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages Induce Foxp3+GITR+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells, Which Suppress via Membrane-Bound TGFβ-11
TLDR
Mφ2 cells are identified as a novel APC subset capable of inducing Tregs and have important implications for understanding Treg dynamics in pathological conditions where macrophages play a key role in inflammatory disease control and exacerbation. Expand
Intracellular bacterial growth is controlled by a kinase network around PKB/AKT1
TLDR
Using a reciprocal chemical genetics approach, kinase inhibitors with antibiotic properties and their host targets are identified, and host signalling networks that are activated by intracellular bacteria for survival are determined. Expand
Divergent effects of IL‐12 and IL‐23 on the production of IL‐17 by human T cells
TLDR
The roles of exogenous (recombinant) and endogenous (macrophage‐derived) IL‐12 and IL‐23, on IL‐17‐induction in human T‐cells are investigated to provide novel insights into the regulation of immunity, inflammation and immunopathology. Expand
Human T-cell responses to 25 novel antigens encoded by genes of the dormancy regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
TLDR
Especially strong IFN-gamma responses to latency antigens were observed in latently infected individuals, suggesting that immune responses against these antIGens may contribute to controlling latent M. tuberculosis infection. Expand
HLA-DO is a negative modulator of HLA-DM-mediated MHC class II peptide loading
TLDR
HLA-DO affects the peptide repertoire that is eventually presented to the immune system by MHC class II molecules, and is a negative modulator of HLA-DM. Expand
Composition of the type VII secretion system membrane complex
TLDR
It is shown that ESX‐5 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mediates the secretion of EsxN, PPE and PE_PGRS proteins, indicating that ESx‐5 is a major secretion pathway in this important pathogen. Expand
PPE Protein (Rv3873) from DNA Segment RD1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Strong Recognition of Both Specific T-Cell Epitopes and Epitopes Conserved within the PPE Family
TLDR
The immunodominant epitope for both TB patients and BCG-vaccinated individuals was found to be highly conserved among a large number of PPE family members, and the native protein, Rv3873, is predominantly associated with the mycobacterial cell or wall. Expand
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