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The Role of Information Processing Between the Brain and Peripheral Physiological Systems in Pacing and Perception of Effort
It is proposed that an internal clock, which appears to use scalar rather than absolute time scales, is used by the brain to generate knowledge of the duration or distance still to be covered, so that power output and metabolic rate can be altered appropriately throughout an event of a particular duration ordistance.
Three independent biological mechanisms cause exercise-associated hyponatremia: evidence from 2,135 weighed competitive athletic performances.
- T. Noakes, K. Sharwood, L. Weschler
- MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 20 December 2005
Weight gain consequent to excessive fluid consumption was the principal cause of a reduced serum [Na+] after exercise, yet most subjects who gained weight maintained or increased serum [ Na+], requiring the addition of significant amounts of Na+ into an expanded volume of total body water.
Evidence for complex system integration and dynamic neural regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment during exercise in humans
A model is proposed in which the development of physical exhaustion is a relative rather than an absolute event and the sensation of fatigue is the sensory representation of the underlying neural…
From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans: summary and conclusions
- T. Noakes, A. St. Clair Gibson, E. V. Lambert
- BiologyBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
- 1 February 2005
It is proposed that the extent of skeletal muscle recruitment is controlled as part of a continuously altering pacing strategy, with the sensation of fatigue being the conscious interpretation of these homoeostatic, central governor control mechanisms.
Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance
- T. Noakes
- BiologyScandinavian journal of medicine & science in…
- 1 June 2000
This review considers four additional models that need to be considered when factors limiting either short duration, maximal or prolonged submaximal exercise are evaluated, and provides a broad overview of the physiological, metabolic and biomechanical factors that may limit exercise performance under different exercise conditions.
Fatigue is a Brain-Derived Emotion that Regulates the Exercise Behavior to Ensure the Protection of Whole Body Homeostasis
- T. Noakes
- EducationFront. Physio.
- 9 January 2012
The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.
Impaired exercise performance in the heat is associated with an anticipatory reduction in skeletal muscle recruitment
Reduced power output and iEMG activity during self-paced exercise in the heat occurs before there is any abnormal increase in rectal temperature, heart rate or perception of effort, thereby ensuring that thermal homeostasis is maintained during exercise inThe heat.
The rate of heat storage mediates an anticipatory reduction in exercise intensity during cycling at a fixed rating of perceived exertion
- R. Tucker, T. Marle, E. V. Lambert, T. Noakes
- Environmental ScienceThe Journal of physiology
- 1 August 2006
The regulation of exercise intensity in hot environments when exercise is performed at a predetermined, fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is controlled by an initial afferent feedback regarding the rate of heat storage, which is used to regulate exercise intensity and hence the rateof heat storage for the remainder of the anticipated exercise bout.
Peak power output predicts maximal oxygen uptake and performance time in trained cyclists
It is concluded that for trained cyclists, theVO2max can be accurately predicted from Wpeak, and that Wpeak is a valid predictor of 20-km cycle time.
Peak treadmill running velocity during the VO2 max test predicts running performance.
In groups of trained long distance runners, the physiological factors that determine success in races of 10-90 km are the same; thus there may not be variables that predict success uniquely in either 10 km, marathon or ultra-marathon runners, and peak treadmill running velocity is at least as good a predictor of running performance as is the lactate turnpoint.