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Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: seroprevalence and risk factors.
TLDR
Risk for T. gondii infection increased with age and was higher among persons who were foreign-born, persons with a lower educational level, those who lived in crowded conditions, and those who worked in soil-related occupations, although in subset analyses risk categories varied by race/ethnicity.
Genetic variation in Pneumocystis carinii isolates from different geographic regions: implications for transmission.
TLDR
Genetic variation at the two loci suggests that most cases of PCP do not result from infections acquired early in life, that infections are actively acquired from a relatively common source (humans or the environment), and that humans, while not necessarily involved in direct infection of other humans, are nevertheless important in the transmission cycle of P. carinii f.
Preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.
TLDR
Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented and specific measures can be taken by women and their health-care providers to decrease the risk for infection during pregnancy and prevent severe illness in newborn infants.
Cryptosporidiosis: clinical, epidemiologic, and parasitologic review.
TLDR
The diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis can now be made noninvasively, but increased diagnostic proficiency has led to little improvement in control or treatment of the disease.
Prevalence of tuberculosis infection in the United States population: the national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999-2000.
TLDR
In addition to basic TB control measures, elimination strategies should include targeted evaluation and treatment of individuals in high-prevalence groups, as well as enhanced support for global TB prevention and control.
Estimated rate of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States, overall and by population subgroup.
TLDR
Differences in rates of TB reactivation across subgroups support current recommendations for targeted testing and treatment of LTBI.
Human and sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in California.
TLDR
This investigation suggests that transmission of sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection to humans occurs in California but that Chagas' disease in humans is rare.
Placebo-controlled clinical trial of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) versus ketoconazole for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Guatemala.
TLDR
Differences among patients infected with Leishmania braziliensis and mexicana-infected patients, only 4 (57%) of 7 in the stibogluconate group but 8 (89%) of 9 in the ketoconazole group responded emphasize the importance of speciation in the treatment of leishmaniasis.
Sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis and geographic region predict mutations in the Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene.
TLDR
The significance of geographic location as a risk factor for mutant genotype and the high proportion of mutant genotypes among persons never prescribed prophylaxis, including those newly diagnosed with HIV infection, provide indirect evidence that these mutations are transmitted from person to person either directly or through a common environmental source.
Human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in the United States, 1995-2005.
TLDR
The prevalence of extrapulmonary disease in the young, US-born Hispanic population suggests recent transmission of M. bovis TB may be related to foodborne exposure, and routine surveillance is recommended of this disease because of its significantly different epidemiologic profile.
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