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Effects of norepinephrine on the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in the rat heart.
To examine whether stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors may affect the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in the rat heart, norepinephrine and the alpha- adrenergic agonist norfenephrine were used and combined alpha- and beta-receptor blockade with carvedilol attenuated these effects.
Phosphate Pathway in the Rat Heart
Norepinephrine and the c-adrenergic agonist norfenephrine were used and stimulated the activity of cardiac glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first and regulating enzyme of the oxidative PPP, in a dose-dependent manner.
Norepinephrine-induced changes in rat heart function, metabolism, and weight are antagonized by carvedilol.
Carvedilol had beta-receptor blocking actions on intact rat heart that were similar to but not as pronounced as those of propranolol, and had a moderate vasodilating effect.
Construction of “Toxin Complex” in a Mutant Serotype C Strain of Clostridium botulinum Harboring a Defective Neurotoxin Gene
Results indicated that knockout of the bont gene does not affect the formation of the “toxin complex” of C-N71, which may be valuable for the development of an oral drug delivery system.