“Jitter” is the noise modulation due to random time shifts on an otherwise ideal, or perfectly on-time, signal transition. In the absence of ultra-high-speed jitter analyzers, spectrum analysis is an… (More)

̂ Theo1 is the first new species of variance that addresses a particularly difficult measurement problem, namely, obtaining reliable estimation of frequency stability for sample periods that are long… (More)

Theoretical variance #1 (Theo1) has been developed at NIST to improve the estimation of long-term frequency stability. Its square-root (Theo1-dev) has two significant improvements over the Allan… (More)

In this paper we discuss an alternate design of a self-starting conjugate regenerative divider (CRD), which uses two parallel loops instead of one series loop as in conventional regenerative divider.… (More)