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Community-level impacts induced by introduced largemouth bass and bluegill in farm ponds in Japan
TLDR
A trophic cascade in which top-down effects induced by exotics propagated to fish, crustaceans, and nymphal odonates directly and to some benthic organisms indirectly is suggested and when one is to conserve native organisms, attention should be paid not only to direct negative effects, but also to indirect effects propagating to various trophics.
The effects of forest fragmentation on web spider communities in urban areas
TLDR
It is proposed that one important mechanism of species loss in web spiders is the lower abundance of large prey in small fragments in forest fragments surrounded by built-up areas in Yokohama and Tokyo.
Forest edge creates small-scale variation in reproductive rate of sika deer
TLDR
The results support the view that land management is the cause of the current problem of deer overabundance and show that deer pregnancy is primarily determined by habitat quality within a 10-ha area.
Landscape heterogeneity at multiple spatial scales enhances spider species richness in an agricultural landscape
TLDR
A combination of paddy fields and forests is important for enhancement of grassland spider species richness and abundance, suggesting habitat supplementation.
Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
TLDR
Analysis of the largest pest-control database of its kind shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others.
Landscape Heterogeneity–Biodiversity Relationship: Effect of Range Size
TLDR
The results indicate that heterogeneous landscapes are associated with rich bird diversity but that most narrow-ranging species prefer homogeneous landscapes—particularly open habitats in colder regions, where grasslands have historically predominated.
Role of a seasonally specialist bird Zosterops japonica on pollen transfer and reproductive success of Camellia japonica in a temperate area
TLDR
A pollinator exclusion experiment showed that fruit set was sixfold greater in flowers visited by birds than in flowers without bird visitation, and demonstrated that Z. japonica is the most effective pollinator of C. Japonica.
Effects of exotic mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on the native fauna of Amami-Oshima Island, southern Japan, estimated by distribution patterns along the historical gradient of mongoose invasion
TLDR
This study appears to be the first example that shows the influence of mongoose on a wide variety of native animals, and indicates the importance of considering the food web structure of a recipient ecosystem and contribute to the prediction and assessment of ecological risks caused not only bymongoose, but also by other invasive top predators.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF EXOTIC BASS AND BLUEGILL ON EXOTIC AND NATIVE ORGANISMS IN FARM PONDS
TLDR
The hypothesis that bass and bluegill in Japanese farm ponds will reduce some native organisms as well as exotic crayfish via top-down effects, whereas other native organisms (chironomid larvae, oligochaetes, and macrophytes) will increase as a result of trophic cascades is tested.
Indirect effects of herbivory by deer reduce abundance and species richness of web spiders1
TLDR
The decrease in spiders was most likely caused by indirect non-trophic effects of herbivory that were mediated by the simplification of habitat structure, not by a decrease in prey abundance.
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