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Induction and activation of the transcription factor NFATc1 (NFAT2) integrate RANKL signaling in terminal differentiation of osteoclasts.
Signaling by RANKL is essential for terminal differentiation of monocytes/macrophages into osteoclasts. The TRAF6 and c-Fos signaling pathways both play important roles downstream of RANKL. We showExpand
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Regulation of cancer cell metabolism
Interest in the topic of tumour metabolism has waxed and waned over the past century of cancer research. The early observations of Warburg and his contemporaries established that there areExpand
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Immunologic Self-Tolerance Maintained by Cd25+Cd4+Regulatory T Cells Constitutively Expressing Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen 4
This report shows that cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a key role in T cell–mediated dominant immunologic self-tolerance. In vivo blockade of CTLA-4 for a limited period inExpand
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OPGL is a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, lymphocyte development and lymph-node organogenesis
The tumour-necrosis-factor-family molecule osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL; also known as TRANCE, RANKL and ODF) has been identified as a potential osteoclast differentiation factor and regulator ofExpand
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BCL-2, BCL-X(L) sequester BH3 domain-only molecules preventing BAX- and BAK-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis.
Critical issues in apoptosis include the importance of caspases versus organelle dysfunction, dominance of anti- versus proapoptotic BCL-2 members, and whether commitment occurs upstream orExpand
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Negative Regulation of PKB/Akt-Dependent Cell Survival by the Tumor Suppressor PTEN
PTEN is a tumor suppressor with sequence homology to protein tyrosine phosphatases and the cytoskeletal protein tensin. mPTEN-mutant mouse embryos display regions of increased proliferation. InExpand
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Integral role of IRF-5 in the gene induction programme activated by Toll-like receptors
The activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is central to innate and adaptive immunity. All TLRs use the adaptor MyD88 for signalling, but the mechanisms underlying the MyD88-mediated gene inductionExpand
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Modulation of oxidative stress as an anticancer strategy
The regulation of oxidative stress is an important factor in both tumour development and responses to anticancer therapies. Many signalling pathways that are linked to tumorigenesis can also regulateExpand
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Regulation of oxidative stress by ATM is required for self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells
The ‘ataxia telangiectasia mutated’ (Atm) gene maintains genomic stability by activating a key cell-cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage, telomeric instability or oxidative stress. MutationalExpand
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Mice deficient for the 55 kd tumor necrosis factor receptor are resistant to endotoxic shock, yet succumb to L. monocytogenes infection
The multiple biological activities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are mediated by two distinct cell surface receptors of 55 kd (TNFRp55) and 75 kd (TNFRp75). Using gene targeting, we generated aExpand
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