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A safe operating space for humanity
Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change, argue Johan Rockstrom and colleagues.
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Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system
The term “tipping point” commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term “tippingExpand
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Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation
Microbial activity is a fundamental component of oceanic nutrient cycles. Photosynthetic microbes, collectively termed phytoplankton, are responsible for the vast majority of primary production inExpand
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Anticipating Critical Transitions
All Change Research on early warning signals for critical transitions in complex systems such as ecosystems, climate, and global finance systems recently has been gathering pace. At the same time,Expand
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COPSE: a new model of biogeochemical cycling over Phanerozoic time
We present a new model of biogeochemical cycling over Phanerozoic time. This work couples a feedback-based model of atmospheric O2 and ocean nutrients (Lenton and Watson, 2000a, 2000b) with aExpand
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The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options
Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current and potential future radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (short- wave) radiation, or byExpand
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Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene
We explore the risk that self-reinforcing feedbacks could push the Earth System toward a planetary threshold that, if crossed, could prevent stabilization of the climate at intermediate temperatureExpand
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Nitrogen-enhanced greenhouse warming on early Earth
Early in Earth’s history, the Sun provided less energy to the Earth than it does today. However, the Earth was not permanently glaciated, an apparent contradiction known as the faint young SunExpand
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Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation
The history of the Earth has been characterized by a series of major transitions separated by long periods of relative stability. The largest chemical transition was the ‘Great Oxidation’,Expand
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The coral reef crisis: the critical importance of<350 ppm CO2.
Temperature-induced mass coral bleaching causing mortality on a wide geographic scale started when atmospheric CO(2) levels exceeded approximately 320 ppm. When CO(2) levels reached approximately 340Expand
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