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Binding of Clostridium botulinum Type C and D Neurotoxins to Ganglioside and Phospholipid
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) act on nerve endings to block acetylcholine release. Their potency is due to their enzymatic activity and selective high affinity binding to neurons.Expand
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Characterization of the Neurotoxin Produced by Isolates Associated with Avian Botulism
Abstract Several varieties of birds are affected by type C botulism. We conducted neutralization tests of culture supernatants of isolates from cases of avian botulism. Whereas the toxin produced byExpand
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A novel M cell–specific carbohydrate-targeted mucosal vaccine effectively induces antigen-specific immune responses
Mucosally ingested and inhaled antigens are taken up by membranous or microfold cells (M cells) in the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches or nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue. WeExpand
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Type A1 but not type A2 botulinum toxin decreases the grip strength of the contralateral foreleg through axonal transport from the toxin-treated foreleg of rats.
The adverse effects of botulinum LL toxin and neurotoxin produced by subtype A1 (A1LL and A1NTX) are becoming issues, as the toxins could diffuse from the toxin-treated (ipsilateral) to contralateralExpand
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Nanogel antigenic protein-delivery system for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccines.
Nanotechnology is an innovative method of freely controlling nanometre-sized materials. Recent outbreaks of mucosal infectious diseases have increased the demands for development of mucosal vaccinesExpand
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Characterization of the D/C mosaic neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum associated with bovine botulism in Japan.
Clostridium botulinum types C and D are related to avian and mammalian botulism. Bovine botulism occurred at various farms from 2004 to 2007 in Japan. Since culture supernatants of isolates fromExpand
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Cytotoxicity of Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin: its oligomerization in detergent resistant membranes of mammalian cells.
Alpha-toxin is an important agent of the virulence of Clostridium septicum. We examined cytotoxicity for alpha-toxin to various mammalian cells with recombinant toxin fused with a histidine-tag atExpand
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Identification of the receptor-binding sites in the carboxyl-terminal half of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin types C and D.
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds to presynaptic neuronal cells and blocks neurotransmitter release. The carboxyl-terminal half of the heavy chain (H(C)) of the neurotoxin recognizes its specificExpand
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Sequence of the gene for Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin associated with infant botulism, expression of the C-terminal half of heavy chain and its binding activity.
Previously, we demonstrated that the neurotoxin of strain 111 (111/NT) associated with type B infant botulism showed antigenic and biological properties different from that (Okra/NT) produced by aExpand
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Specificity of botulinum protease for human VAMP family proteins
The botulinum neurotoxin light chain (BoNT‐LC) is a zinc‐dependent metalloprotease that cleaves neuronal SNARE proteins such as SNAP‐25, VAMP2, and Syntaxin1. This cleavage interferes with theExpand
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