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The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors
Recent advances that have been made by research into the role of TLR biology in host defense and disease are described.
A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
It is shown that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9, and vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll- like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA.
Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
It is found that RIG-I is essential for the production of interferons in response to RNA viruses including paramyxoviruses, influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, whereas MDA5 is critical for picornavirus detection.
Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity.
IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction
IPS-1 contained an N-terminal CARD-like structure that mediated interaction with the CARD of RIG-I and Mda5, which are cytoplasmic RNA helicases that sense viral infection and blocked interferon induction by virus infection.
Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product.
It is demonstrated that TLR4 is the gene product that regulates LPS response, and a single point mutation of the amino acid that is highly conserved among the IL-1/Toll receptor family is found.
Unresponsiveness of MyD88-deficient mice to endotoxin.
Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components.
The roles of TLRs, RLRs and NLRs in pathogen recognition.
Recent insights into pathogen sensing by PRRs are summarized and specific signaling pathways that lead to expression of genes that tailor immune responses to particular microbes are summarized.