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Structure and mode of action of clostridial glucosylating toxins: the ABCD model.
Toxins A and B, which are the major virulence factors of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, are the prototypes of the family of clostridialExpand
Rho-glucosylating Clostridium difficile toxins A and B: new insights into structure and function.
Clostridium difficile causes pseudomembranous colitis and is responsible for many cases of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Major virulence factors of C. difficile are the glucosylatingExpand
Auto-catalytic Cleavage of Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B Depends on Cysteine Protease Activity*
The action of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B depends on processing and translocation of the catalytic glucosyltransferase domain into the cytosol of target cells where Rho GTPases are modified.Expand
Clostridium difficile Glucosyltransferase Toxin B-essential Amino Acids for Substrate Binding*
Recently the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of Clostridium difficile toxin B was solved ( Reinert, D. J., Jank, T., Aktories, K., and Schulz, G. E. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 351, 973-981 ). OnExpand
Clostridium difficile Toxin Biology.
Clostridium difficile is the cause of antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The pathogen produces three protein toxins: C. difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), and C.Expand
Domain organization of Legionella effector SetA
Legionella pneumophila is a human pathogen causing severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. Multiple Legionella effectors are type IV‐secreted into the host cell to establish a specificExpand
Bacillus sphaericus mosquitocidal toxin (MTX) and pierisin: the enigmatic offspring from the family of ADP‐ribosyltransferases
The mosquitocidal toxin (MTX) from Bacillus sphaericus and the apoptosis‐inducing pierisin‐1 from the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae are two of the most intriguing members of the family ofExpand
Molecular Characteristics of Clostridium perfringens TpeL Toxin and Consequences of Mono-O-GlcNAcylation of Ras in Living Cells*
Background: TpeL is a member of the family of clostridial glucosylating toxins, produced by Clostridium perfringens. Results: TpeL enters target cells by self-mediated entry and mono-glycosylates RasExpand
Eddy Dissipation Rates in Thunderstorms Estimated by Doppler Radar in Relation to Aircraft In Situ Measurements
Abstract High-resolution aircraft turbulence measurements, well coordinated with radar Doppler spectral width measurements, have been used to verify radar-estimated energy dissipation rates withinExpand
Structural basis for the function of Clostridium difficile toxin B.
Toxin B is a member of the family of large clostridial cytotoxins which are of great medical importance. Its catalytic fragment was crystallized in the presence of UDP-glucose and Mn2+. The structureExpand