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'Sniffin' sticks': olfactory performance assessed by the combined testing of odor identification, odor discrimination and olfactory threshold.
- T. Hummel, B. Sekinger, S. Wolf, E. Pauli, G. Kobal
- Psychology, BiologyChemical senses
- 1 February 1997
'Sniffin' Sticks' is a new test of nasal chemosensory performance based on pen-like odor dispensing devices. It comprises three tests of olfactory function, namely tests for odor threshold…
Normative data for the “Sniffin’ Sticks” including tests of odor identification, odor discrimination, and olfactory thresholds: an upgrade based on a group of more than 3,000 subjects
- T. Hummel, G. Kobal, H. Gudziol, A. Mackay-Sim
- PsychologyEuropean Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
- 2 February 2007
The present data suggest specific changes of individual olfactory functions in relation to age, with odor thresholds declining most dramatically compared to odor discrimination and odor identification.
Quantitative assessment of gustatory function in a clinical context using impregnated "taste strips".
Major advantages are long shelf-life, convenience of administration, short time needed for testing (approximately 8 min), and the possibility to test each side of the tongue separately.
Position paper on olfactory dysfunction.
The current manuscript is hoped to encourage clinicians and researchers to adopt a common language, and in so doing, increase the methodological quality, consistency and generalisability of work in this field.
Multicenter investigation of 1,036 subjects using a standardized method for the assessment of olfactory function combining tests of odor identification, odor discrimination, and olfactory thresholds
The results of this multicenter investigation provide the basis for the routine clinical evaluation of patients with olfactory disorders using “Sniffin’ Sticks” as a composite TDI score, i.e., the sum of results obtained for threshold, discrimination and identification measures.
"Sniffin' sticks": screening of olfactory performance.
- G. Kobal, T. Hummel, B. Sekinger, S. Barz, S. Roscher, S. Wolf
- Psychology, MedicineRhinology
- 1 December 1996
It is concluded that Sniffin' Sticks may be useful in the routine clinical assessment of olfactory performance where both time and costs matter.
Olfactory disorders and quality of life--an updated review.
It can be concluded that loss of the sense of smell leads to disturbances in important areas, mainly in food enjoyment, detecting harmful food and smoke, and to some extent in social situations and working life.
Reduced olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sensitivity in patients with acute major depression
Characteristics of olfactory disorders in relation to major causes of olfactory loss.
- A. Temmel, C. Quint, B. Schickinger-Fischer, L. Klimek, Elisabeth Stoller, T. Hummel
- Medicine, PsychologyArchives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
- 1 June 2002
This loss in quality of life (QoL) seemed to be of greater importance in younger than in older people, and women seem to be affected more strongly than men.
Effects of olfactory training in patients with olfactory loss
- T. Hummel, Karo Rissom, J. Reden, Aantje Hähner, M. Weidenbecher, K. Hüttenbrink
- Psychology, BiologyThe Laryngoscope
- 1 March 2009
The aim of this investigation was to determine whether patients with olfactory loss would benefit from “Training” with odors in terms of an improvement of their general Olfactory function and to produce both an improved sensitivity towards the odors used in the Training process and an overall increase of o aroma function.