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The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire.
- T. Heatherton, L. Kozlowski, R. Frecker, K. Fagerström
- Psychology, MedicineBritish Journal of Addiction
- 1 September 1991
A revision of the FTQ: the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), which found that a revised scoring of time to the first cigarette of the day (TTF) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) improved the scale.
Development and validation of a scale for measuring state self-esteem.
This article examines the measurement of short-lived (i.e., state) changes in self-esteem. A new scale is introduced that is sensitive to manipulations designed to temporarily alter self-esteem, and…
Finding the Self? An Event-Related fMRI Study
- W. M. Kelley, C. N. Macrae, C. Wyland, S. Çağlar, S. Inati, T. Heatherton
- PsychologyJournal of Cognitive Neuroscience
- 1 July 2002
The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate potential neural substrates of self-referential processing and suggests that self- Referential processing is functionally dissociable from other forms of semantic processing within the human brain.
Guilt: an interpersonal approach.
Empirical research findings suggest that guilt serves various relationship-enhancing functions, including motivating people to treat partners well and avoid transgressions, minimizing inequities and enabling less powerful partners to get their way, and redistributing emotional distress.
Losing Control: How and Why People Fail at Self-Regulation
Basic Issues: Introduction: Self-Regulation Failure in Social and Theoretical Context. General Patterns and Mechanisms of Self-Regulation Failure. Controlling Thoughts, Feelings, and Actions: Task…
Binge eating as escape from self-awareness.
It is proposed that binge eating is motivated by a desire to escape from self-awareness, and the escape model is capable of integrating much of the available evidence about binge eating.
Self-Regulation Failure: An Overview
The major patterns of self-regulatory failure are reviewed. Underregulation occurs because of deficient standards, inadequate monitoring, or inadequate strength. Misregulation occurs because of false…
Measuring the heaviness of smoking: using self-reported time to the first cigarette of the day and number of cigarettes smoked per day.
- T. Heatherton, L. Kozlowski, R. Frecker, W. Rickert, J. Robinson
- PsychologyBritish Journal of Addiction
- 1 July 1989
A four category scoring scheme is suggested for both time to the first cigarette of the day and average daily consumption of cigarettes as the most powerful and practical categorical scoring of these variables.
A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to state self‐esteem
This article proposes a framework for representing personality constructs at four levels of abstraction. The total aggregation model is the composite formed by the sum of scores on all items in a…
Self-Regulatory Failure: A Resource-Depletion Approach
Three studies were conducted to test the behavioral consequences of effortful self-regulation. Individuals with chronic inhibitions about eating were exposed to situations varying in level of…