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The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire.
A revision of the FTQ: the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), which found that a revised scoring of time to the first cigarette of the day (TTF) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) improved the scale. Expand
Development and validation of a scale for measuring state self-esteem.
This article examines the measurement of short-lived (i.e., state) changes in self-esteem. A new scale is introduced that is sensitive to manipulations designed to temporarily alter self-esteem, andExpand
Finding the Self? An Event-Related fMRI Study
The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate potential neural substrates of self-referential processing and suggests that self- Referential processing is functionally dissociable from other forms of semantic processing within the human brain. Expand
Guilt: an interpersonal approach.
Empirical research findings suggest that guilt serves various relationship-enhancing functions, including motivating people to treat partners well and avoid transgressions, minimizing inequities and enabling less powerful partners to get their way, and redistributing emotional distress. Expand
Losing Control: How and Why People Fail at Self-Regulation
Basic Issues: Introduction: Self-Regulation Failure in Social and Theoretical Context. General Patterns and Mechanisms of Self-Regulation Failure. Controlling Thoughts, Feelings, and Actions: TaskExpand
Binge eating as escape from self-awareness.
It is proposed that binge eating is motivated by a desire to escape from self-awareness, and the escape model is capable of integrating much of the available evidence about binge eating. Expand
Self-Regulation Failure: An Overview
The major patterns of self-regulatory failure are reviewed. Underregulation occurs because of deficient standards, inadequate monitoring, or inadequate strength. Misregulation occurs because of falseExpand
A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to state self‐esteem
This article proposes a framework for representing personality constructs at four levels of abstraction. The total aggregation model is the composite formed by the sum of scores on all items in aExpand
Self-Regulatory Failure: A Resource-Depletion Approach
Three studies were conducted to test the behavioral consequences of effortful self-regulation. Individuals with chronic inhibitions about eating were exposed to situations varying in level ofExpand
Neuroanatomical Evidence for Distinct Cognitive and Affective Components of Self
It is found that distinct neural circuits in adjacent regions of the prefrontal cortex subserve cognitive and emotional aspects of self-reflection, and the medial prefrontal cortex responded only to material that was self-descriptive, and this did not differ as a function of the valence of the trait. Expand