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Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms
This work observes a quantum phase transition in a Bose–Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential, and can induce reversible changes between the two ground states of the system.
The size of the proton
The root-mean-square charge radius, rp, has been determined with an accuracy of 2 per cent by electron–proton scattering experiments, and the present most accurate value of rp (with an uncertainty of 1 per cent) is given by the CODATA compilation of physical constants.
Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields
The generation of intense, few-cycle laser pulses with a stable carrier envelope phase that permit the triggering and steering of microscopic motion with an ultimate precision limited only by quantum mechanical uncertainty are reported.
Optical frequency metrology
The ability to count optical oscillations of more than 1015 cycles per second facilitates high-precision optical spectroscopy, and has led to the construction of an all-optical atomic clock that is expected eventually to outperform today's state-of-the-art caesium clocks.
Collapse and revival of the matter wave field of a Bose–Einstein condensate
It is observed that the matter wave field of the Bose–Einstein condensate undergoes a periodic series of collapses and revivals; this behaviour is directly demonstrated in the dynamical evolution of the multiple matter wave interference pattern.
ATOMIC MICROMANIPULATION WITH MAGNETIC SURFACE TRAPS
We describe manipulation of neutral atoms using the magnetic field of microfabricated currentcarrying conductors. It is shown how this method can be used to achieve adiabatic magnetic transport from…
A fiber Fabry–Perot cavity with high finesse
We have realized a fiber-based Fabry–Perot cavity with CO2 laser-machined mirrors. It combines very small size, high finesse , small waist and mode volume, and good mode matching between the fiber…
Proton Structure from the Measurement of 2S-2P Transition Frequencies of Muonic Hydrogen
Accurate knowledge of the charge and Zemach radii of the proton is essential, not only for understanding its structure but also as input for tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics and its predictions for the energy levels of hydrogen.
Bose–Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip
It is demonstrated that the formation of a condensate can be greatly simplified using a microscopic magnetic trap on a chip, and the possibility of manipulating laser-like coherent matter waves with such an integrated atom-optical system holds promise for applications in interferometry, holography, microscopy, atom lithography and quantum information processing.