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Adaptation to Sun and Shade: a Whole-Plant Perspective
Adaptation to irradiance level is explored, focusing on traits whose significance would be elusive if considered in terms of their impact at the leaf level alone, and three energetic tradeoffs likely to shape such adaptation are outlined, involving the economics of gas exchange, support, and biotic interactions.
Staggered Flowering in the Dipterocarpaceae: New Insights Into Floral Induction and the Evolution of Mast Fruiting in the Aseasonal Tropics
The observations and analyses presented here indicate that the Dipterocarpaceae may have arisen initially in the seasonal tropics, even though their center of species diversity is now in the aseasonal tropics.
Adaptive significance of evergreen vs. deciduous leaves : solving the triple paradox
A generalized optimality model is outlined to account for evergreen dominance and other patterns in leaf longevity and phenology, based on maximizing whole-plant carbon gain or height growth, and building on recent advances in the understanding of the quantitative relationships of leaf photosynthesis, nitrogen content, and mass per unit area to leaf life-span.
Carnivory in the Bromeliad Brocchinia reducta, with a Cost/Benefit Model for the General Restriction of Carnivorous Plants to Sunny, Moist, Nutrient-Poor Habitats
A cost/benefit model for the evolution of carnivory is developed to analyze why carnivorous plants are restricted mainly to sunny, moist, nutrient-poor sites and seasons, and why carnivory are rare in epiphytes and other bromeliads.
Phylogeny, adaptive radiation, and historical biogeography in Bromeliaceae: insights from an eight-locus plastid phylogeny.
A bromeliad phylogeny based on eight plastid regions is used to analyze relationships within the family, test a new, eight-subfamily classification, infer the chronology of b romeliad evolution and invasion of different regions, and provide the basis for future analyses of trait evolution and rates of diversification.
Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae)
A molecular phylogeny is presented showing that the Hawaiian lobeliads are the product of one immigration event; that they are the largest plant clade on any single oceanic island or archipelago; and that diversification of Cyanea saturates in less than 1.5 Myr.
Cladistic analysis of ndhf sequences identifies eight major bromeliad clades arranged in ladderlike fashion, and Hechtia, Abromeitiella-Deuterocohnia-Dyckia-Encholirium, and Puya exhibit a remarkable pattern of concerted convergence in six anatomical and physiological leaf traits adapted to drought.
On the causes of gradients in tropical tree diversity
1 The number of woody species in tropical forests tends to increase with precipitation, forest stature, soil fertility, rate of canopy turnover and time since catastrophic disturbance, and decrease
Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification
A phylogeny based on 75 chloroplast genes for 39 species representing all orchid subfamilies and 16 of 17 tribes, time-calibrated against 17 angiosperm fossils shows that orchids appear to have undergone one significant acceleration of net species diversification in the orchidoids, and two accelerations and one deceleration in the upper epidendroids.
Leaf and Canopy Adaptations in Tropical Forests
Ecological patterns in several aspects of leaf form and canopy structure in tropical forest plants are reviewed and analyzed and a basis for the paradoxical duality of morphological adaptations to drought and nutrient poverty is suggested.