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Secret Weapons: Defenses of Insects, Spiders, Scorpions, and Other Many-Legged Creatures
This book is dominantly about chemical defences of terrestrial arthropods, though other types of defences (camouflage, catapulting, sticky traps) are also mentioned. Chapters are short, and typically
Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea).
The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and
Vein-cutting behavior: insect counterploy to the latex defense of plants.
TLDR
Experimental vein severance renders milkweed leaves edible to generalist herbivores that do not show vein-cutting behaviors and ordinarily ignore milkweeds in nature.
The chemistry of sexual selection.
  • T. Eisner, J. Meinwald
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 3 January 1995
TLDR
The moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids that it sequesters as a larva from its foodplants, and females reinforce after copulation the choice mechanism they already exercise during courtship.
Defensive Secretions of Millipeds
The millipeds, comprising the arthropodan class Diplopoda, are a relatively uniform and unspectacular lot. Generally slow and sluggish despite their many legs, they are for the most part furtive
Firefly "femmes fatales" acquire defensive steroids (lucibufagins) from their firefly prey.
TLDR
It is found that by feeding on Photinus males, Photuris females gain more than nutrients, and acquire defensive steroidal pyrones called lucibufagins, which are contained in Photinus but which photuris fireflies are unable to produce on their own.
Biparental defensive endowment of eggs with acquired plant alkaloid in the moth Utetheisa ornatrix.
TLDR
Field and laboratory tests showed that the alkaloids of Utetheisa ornatrix protect eggs from predators, and a previously identified pheromone, derived by the male from the alkAloid and emitted during precopulatory behavior, may announce the male alkaloidal worth to the female.
Seasonal Anointment with Millipedes in a Wild Primate: A Chemical Defense Against Insects?
TLDR
It is argued that the secretion that rubs off on the monkeys in the course of anointment provides protection against insects, particularly mosquitoes (and the bot flies they transmit) during the rainy season.
Ultraviolet Reflection of a Male Butterfly: Interference Color Caused by Thin-Layer Elaboration of Wing Scales
TLDR
The male of the butterfly Eurema lisa, like many other members of the family Pieridae, reflect ultraviolet light, but the female lacks such scales and is consequently nonreflectant.
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