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Flexural stiffness in insect wings I. Scaling and the influence of wing venation
This study addresses the relationship between venation pattern and wing flexibility by measuring the flexural stiffness of wings (in both the spanwise and chordwise directions) and quantifying wing venation in 16 insect species from six orders and demonstrates that leading edge veins are crucial in generating this spanwise-chordwise anisotropy. Expand
Into thin air: contributions of aerodynamic and inertial-elastic forces to wing bending in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta
A simplified finite element model of a wing is used to show that the differences observed between wings flapped in air versus helium are most likely due to fluid damping, rather than to aerodynamic forces, suggesting that damped finite element models of insect wings may be able to predict overall patterns of wing deformation prior to calculations of aerodynamic force production. Expand
Flexural stiffness in insect wings II. Spatial distribution and dynamic wing bending
  • S. Combes, T. Daniel
  • Materials Science, Medicine
  • Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 1 September 2003
Finite element models based on M. sexta forewings demonstrate that the measured spatial variation in flexural stiffness preserves rigidity in proximal regions of the wing, while transferring bending to the edges, where aerodynamic force production is most sensitive to subtle changes in shape. Expand
Unsteady Aspects of Aquatic Locomotion
Virtually all animals swim unsteadily. They oscillate appendages, undulate, and produce periodic propulsive forces so that the velocity of some part of their bodies changes in time. Because of theirExpand
Mechanics and energetics of medusan jet propulsion
A theoretical model is developed to describe the mechanics and energetics of medusae which swim by jet propulsion. The model leads to four generalizations: (i) The acceleration reaction, not drag, isExpand
Flight control in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: the inverse problem of hovering
The multiplicity of possible hovering kinematics shows that the means by which Manduca sexta actually maintains position and orientation may have considerable freedom and therefore may be influenced by many other factors beyond the physical and aerodynamic requirements of hovering flight. Expand
Cost of Locomotion: Unsteady Medusan Swimming
The results suggest that the effects of vortex formation and shedding may significantly increase the magnitude of the forces produced by or resisting unsteady animal locomotion. Expand
Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control.
These studies demonstrate that intrinsic properties of muscle contribute to dynamic stability and control of movement, particularly immediately after perturbations, and proprioceptive feedback reinforces these intrinsic self-stabilizing properties of Muscle. Expand
Mechanics of Food Handling by Fluid-Feeding Insects
A rich tradition in comparative anatomy and behavior has placed less emphasis on the common features in fluid feeding that are likely to result from the basic physical processes of moving fluid from the external environment to the inside of the insect. Expand
Shape, flapping and flexion: wing and fin design for forward flight.
An unsteady potential flow analysis that incorporates wing flexion is used and shows that aspect ratio and the proportion of area in the outer one-fifth of the wing can characterize wing shape in terms of aero- or hydrodynamic performance. Expand