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Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary
Between 8 and 6 million years ago, there was a global increase in the biomass of plants using C4 photosynthesis as indicated by changes in the carbon isotope ratios of fossil tooth enamel in Asia,
Carbon isotope fractionation between diet and bioapatite in ungulate mammals and implications for ecological and paleoecological studies
This isotope enrichment factor applies to a wide variety of ruminant mammals, and can be used to track changes in the isotopic composition of the atmosphere, determine the fraction of C3 or C4 biomass in diets of modern or fossil mammals, distinguish between mammals using different subpathways of C4 photosynthesis, and identify those mammals whose diet is derived from closed-canopy habitats.
Development of Asian monsoon revealed by marked ecological shift during the latest Miocene in northern Pakistan
CARBON isotopes from soil carbonate1–4 and soil organic matter5,6 yield palaeoecological information because the carbon in the soil carbonate forms in isotopic equilibrium with local soil CO2 (refs
Stable carbon isotope data provide a quantitative measure of the fraction of C4 grass in bovid diets, can be applied on regional to local scales, and can be derived from tooth enamel and hair or other tissues, and permit the diets of bovids to be considered in the context of a grazer–browser continuum.
Systematic variations in the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate along elevation transects in the southern Great Basin, United States
Stable carbon- and oxygen-isotope variations in Holocene soil carbonates that formed in the unsaturated zone were examined along several elevation transects in the southern Great Basin, United
Expansion of C4 ecosystems as an indicator of global ecological change in the late Miocene
It is proposed that the global expansion of C4 biomass may be related to lower atmospheric carbon dioxide levels because C4 photosynthesis is favoured over C3 photosynthesis when there are low concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.