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A revised six‐kingdom system of life
  • T. Cavalier-smith
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical…
  • 1 August 1998
A revised six‐kingdom system of life is presented, down to the level of infraphylum. As in my 1983 system Bacteria are treated as a single kingdom, and eukaryotes are divided into only five kingdoms:Expand
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Principles of Protein and Lipid Targeting in Secondary Symbiogenesis: Euglenoid, Dinoflagellate, and Sporozoan Plastid Origins and the Eukaryote Family Tree 1 , 2
The biggest unsolved problems in chloroplast evolution are the origins of dinoflagellate and euglenoid chloroplasts, which have envelopes of three membranes not two like plants and chromists, and ofExpand
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Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla.
The demarcation of protist kingdoms is reviewed, a complete revised classification down to the level of subclass is provided for the kingdoms Protozoa, Archezoa, and Chromista, and the phylogeneticExpand
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Molecular data and the evolutionary history of dinoflagellates
We have sequenced small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from 16 dinoflagellates, produced phylogenetic trees of the group containing 105 taxa, and combined small- and partial large-subunitExpand
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The highly reduced genome of an enslaved algal nucleus
Chromophyte algae differ fundamentally from plants in possessing chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll c and that have a more complex bounding-membrane topology. Although chromophytes are known to beExpand
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Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa
Protist large-scale phylogeny is briefly reviewed and a revised higher classification of the kingdom Protozoa into 11 phyla presented. Complementary gene fusions reveal a fundamental bifurcationExpand
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Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?
The primary taxa of eukaryote classification should be monophyletic and based on fundamental cell structure rather than nutritional adaptive zones. The classical two kingdom classification intoExpand
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The Origin of Eukaryote and Archaebacterial Cells
  • T. Cavalier-smith
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1 July 1987
Ultrastructural and molecular data have recently so rejuvenated the study of organismic diversity that we may soon have a clear understanding of the overall phylogeny of the living world, and even ofExpand
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Myosin domain evolution and the primary divergence of eukaryotes
Eukaryotic cells have two contrasting cytoskeletal and ciliary organizations. The simplest involves a single cilium-bearing centriole, nucleating a cone of individual microtubules (probably ancestralExpand
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Rooting the Eukaryote Tree by Using a Derived Gene Fusion
Single-gene trees have failed to locate the root of the eukaryote tree because of systematic biases in sequence evolution. Structural genetic data should yield more reliable insights into deepExpand
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