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A revised six‐kingdom system of life
  • T. Cavalier-smith
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical…
  • 1 August 1998
A revised six‐kingdom system of life is presented, down to the level of infraphylum. As in my 1983 system Bacteria are treated as a single kingdom, and eukaryotes are divided into only five kingdoms:Expand
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The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.
  • T. Cavalier-smith
  • Biology, Medicine
  • International journal of systematic and…
  • 1 March 2002
Eukaryotes and archaebacteria form the clade neomura and are sisters, as shown decisively by genes fragmented only in archaebacteria and by many sequence trees. This sisterhood refutes all theoriesExpand
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Principles of Protein and Lipid Targeting in Secondary Symbiogenesis: Euglenoid, Dinoflagellate, and Sporozoan Plastid Origins and the Eukaryote Family Tree 1 , 2
The biggest unsolved problems in chloroplast evolution are the origins of dinoflagellate and euglenoid chloroplasts, which have envelopes of three membranes not two like plants and chromists, and ofExpand
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Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla.
The demarcation of protist kingdoms is reviewed, a complete revised classification down to the level of subclass is provided for the kingdoms Protozoa, Archezoa, and Chromista, and the phylogeneticExpand
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The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification.
Prokaryotes constitute a single kingdom, Bacteria, here divided into two new subkingdoms: Negibacteria, with a cell envelope of two distinct genetic membranes, and Unibacteria, comprising the newExpand
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Molecular data and the evolutionary history of dinoflagellates
We have sequenced small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from 16 dinoflagellates, produced phylogenetic trees of the group containing 105 taxa, and combined small- and partial large-subunitExpand
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The highly reduced genome of an enslaved algal nucleus
Chromophyte algae differ fundamentally from plants in possessing chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll c and that have a more complex bounding-membrane topology. Although chromophytes are known to beExpand
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Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution
  • T. Cavalier-smith
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B…
  • 29 June 2006
This synthesis has three main parts. The first discusses the overall tree of life and nature of the last common ancestor (cenancestor). I emphasize key steps in cellular evolution important forExpand
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Only six kingdoms of life
  • T. Cavalier-smith
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London…
  • 22 June 2004
There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro–organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences clonedExpand
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Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa).
The protozoan phylum Cercozoa embraces numerous ancestrally biciliate zooflagellates, euglyphid and other filose testate amoebae, chlorarachnean algae, phytomyxean plant parasites (e.g.Expand
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