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Dynamic Readers for 5-(Hydroxy)Methylcytosine and Its Oxidized Derivatives
Oxidized derivatives of mC recruit distinct transcription regulators as well as a large number of DNA repair proteins in mouse ES cells, implicating the DNA damage response as a major player in active DNA demethylation. Expand
Tissue Distribution of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine and Search for Active Demethylation Intermediates
The data suggest that an active oxidative mC demethylation pathway is unlikely to occur and show that hmC is present in all tissues and cell types with highest concentrations in neuronal cells of the CNS. Expand
Quantification of the sixth DNA base hydroxymethylcytosine in the brain.
Error-prone replication of oxidatively damaged DNA by a high-fidelity DNA polymerase
Comparisons reveal a fundamental mechanism of error-prone replication and show how 8oxoG, and DNA lesions in general, can form mismatches that evade polymerase error-detection mechanisms, potentially leading to the stable incorporation of lethal mutations. Expand
Crystal Structure of a Photolyase Bound to a CPD-Like DNA Lesion After in Situ Repair
The crystal structure of a DNA photolyase bound to duplex DNA that is bent by 50° and comprises a synthetic CPD lesion that apparently mimics a structural substate during light-driven DNA repair in which back-flipping of the thymines into duplexDNA has not yet taken place is reported. Expand
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) recruits and repels proteins to regulate mRNA homeostasis
Comprehensive and systematic mass-spectrometry-based screening of m6A interactors in various cell types and sequence contexts identifies G3BP1 as a protein that is repelled by m 6A and positively regulates mRNA stability in an m6a-regulated manner, thus revealing a connection between an mRNA modification and an autism spectrum disorder. Expand
Tet oxidizes thymine to 5-hydroxymethyluracil in mouse embryonic stem cell DNA.
Protein pull-down experiments in combination with peptide tracing identifies hmU as a base that influences binding of chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription factors, suggesting that hm U has a specific function in stem cells besides triggering DNA repair. Expand
Recognition and repair of UV lesions in loop structures of duplex DNA by DASH-type cryptochrome
The crystal structure of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 3 with an in-situ-repaired CPD substrate in single-stranded DNA shows a binding mode similar to that of conventional DNA photolyase, and reveals that DASH cryptochromes catalyze light-driven DNA repair like conventional photolyases but lack an efficient flipping mechanism for interaction with CPD lesions within duplex DNA. Expand
Mechanism of translesion transcription by RNA polymerase II and its role in cellular resistance to DNA damage.
Evidence is presented that Pol II has an intrinsic capacity for translesion synthesis (TLS) that enables bypass of the CPD with or without repair, which becomes essential for cell survival upon accumulation of the unrepaired CPD lesions in genomic DNA. Expand
The discovery of 5-formylcytosine in embryonic stem cell DNA.
Recent data suggest that active demethylation in postdevelopmental phases may proceed through deamination of hmC to give 5-hydroxymethyluridine (hmU), which is then removed from the genome with the help of the base excision repair (BER) system. Expand