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Hidden Killers: Human Fungal Infections
TLDR
The importance of fungi as human pathogens is highlighted and the challenges the authors face in combating the devastating invasive infections caused by these microorganisms are discussed, in particular in immunocompromised individuals.
Clinical, Cellular, and Molecular Factors That Contribute to Antifungal Drug Resistance
TLDR
This review summarizes the factors that contribute to antifungal drug resistance on three levels: clinical factors that result in the inability to successfully treat refractory disease; cellular factors associated with a resistant fungal strain; and molecular factors that are ultimately responsible for the resistance phenotype in the cell.
Increased mRNA levels of ERG16, CDR, and MDR1 correlate with increases in azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus
  • T. C. White
  • Biology
    Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • 1 July 1997
TLDR
A compilation of the genetic alterations identified in this series suggests that resistance develops gradually and is the sum of several different changes, all of which contribute to the final resistant phenotype.
Candidemia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients: evolution of risk factors after the adoption of prophylactic fluconazole.
TLDR
The use of prophylactic fluconazole is associated with a low incidence of candidemia and attributable mortality, despite colonization with azole-resistant Candida species in BMT recipients.
The presence of an R467K amino acid substitution and loss of allelic variation correlate with an azole-resistant lanosterol 14alpha demethylase in Candida albicans
  • T. C. White
  • Biology
    Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • 1 July 1997
TLDR
Biochemical analysis demonstrates that Erg16p became less susceptible to fluconazole in isolate 13 in a series of isolates from an HIV-infected patient, demonstrating azole resistance in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.
Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases: isoenzyme pattern is determined by cell type, and levels are determined by environmental factors
TLDR
These studies define the culture conditions which control the levels of SAP mRNAs and Sap proteins, and they indicate that both the yeast/hyphal transition and phenotypic switching can determine which of the Sap isoenzymes is produced.
Resistance Mechanisms in Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans
TLDR
The analyses suggest that the resistance mechanisms identified in matched sets of susceptible and resistant isolates are not sufficient to explain resistance in a collection of unmatched clinical isolates and that additional mechanisms have yet to be discovered.
Three distinct secreted aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans
TLDR
From a single strain of C. albicans (WO-1) which expresses a phenotypic switching system, three secreted aspartyl proteinases have been identified as determined by molecular weight and N-terminal sequence.
Role of Candida albicans Transcription Factor Upc2p in Drug Resistance and Sterol Metabolism
TLDR
It appears that CaUPC2 acts as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of ergosterol biosynthetic genes and as a regulator of sterol uptake across the plasma membrane.
Homozygosity at the Candida albicans MTL locus associated with azole resistance.
TLDR
A significant correlation between loss of heterozygosity at the C. albicans mating-type-like (MTL) locus and resistance to azole antifungals is described and statistical analysis of the data demonstrates a strong correlation.
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