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Observational learning and the raiding of food caches in ravens, Corvus corax: is it ‘tactical’ deception?
Abstract Group-foraging ravens scatter-hoard when they are competing for food and, to some extent, also raid the caches made by others. We investigated the effects of observational spatial memory on
Testing Problem Solving in Ravens: String-Pulling to Reach Food
TLDR
The results support the idea that the ravens behaviour in accessing meat on a string is not only a product of rapid learning but may involve some understanding of cause–effect relation between string, food and certain body parts.
Ravens, Corvus corax, follow gaze direction of humans around obstacles
TLDR
It is shown that hand–raised ravens not only visually co–orient with the look–ups of a human experimenter but also reposition themselves to follow the experimenter's gaze around a visual barrier, raising the possibility that sub–adult and adult ravens can project a line of sight for the other person into the distance.
Do Ravens Show Consolation? Responses to Distressed Others
TLDR
The findings suggest that in ravens, bystanders may console victims with whom they share a valuable relationship, thus alleviating the victims' post-conflict distress, and show that ravens may be sensitive to the emotions of others.
Gaze following in the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria)
TLDR
The findings indicate that the ability to follow gaze may be found in mammals, birds and reptiles and could have evolved before the amniotic line diverged, or may result from a general ability to learn.
Ravens, Corvus corax, differentiate between knowledgeable and ignorant competitors
TLDR
This work shows that ravens modify their cache protection and pilfer tactics not simply in response to the immediate behaviour of competitors, but also in relation to whether or not they previously had the opportunity of observing caching.
Tolerance and reward equity predict cooperation in ravens (Corvus corax)
TLDR
Given their natural propensity to cooperate and the results they present, ravens are considered as an interesting model species to study the evolution of, and the mechanisms underlying cooperation.
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