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Process Heat Transfer
This book presents comprehensive coverage of both classical and new topics on the subject. Classical aspects discussed include shell-and-tube heat exchangers, double pipe exchangers, reboilers, and
The mutual solubilities of water with supercritical and liquid carbon dioxides
Abstract New data are presented for phase compositions and phase densities at 15, 20, 25, 35, and 40 °C which extend the coverage of the classic work of Wiebe and Gaddy on the CO 2 /H 2 O system in
The paper describes the mechanisms in the development of biofouling layers (initial surface conditioning, microbial transport and attachment, mass transfer of nutrients to the biofilm surface and
Direct measurement of the adhesive strength of biofilms in pipes by micromanipulation
A novel micromanipulation technique has been developed to measure directly the adhesive strength of biofilms formed in pipe flows. A T-shaped probe was specially designed to pull Pseudomonas
Effects of operating conditions on the adhesive strength of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in tubes.
Results indicate that the adhesive strength of the biofilm was affected by the conditions of operation, such as biofilm age, nutrient concentration, suspended cell concentration, pH, surface roughness of the substratum and fluid velocity.
Laboratory modelling of manganese biofiltration using biofilms of Leptothrix discophora.
The non-problematic scale-up of the process from the laboratory-scale to the pilot-scale biofilter model suggests that Mn biofilters may be 'seeded' with laboratory grown cultures of L. discophora, and it is hoped to reduce the filter maturation time from months to days.
Extraction of natural products using near-critical solvents
Introduction. Food legislation and the scope for increased use of near-critical fluid extraction operations in the food, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. Other uses for near-critical
Ultrasound enhancement of biocide efficiency.
The preliminary results reported in this paper suggest that the combined effect of ultrasound and the biocide is better than either separately employed, but substantially more work is required in order to maximise effectiveness for minimum cost.
Techniques for reducing the amount of biocide necessary to counteract the effects of biofilm growth in cooling water systems
  • T. Bott
  • Environmental Science
  • 1 November 1998
Cooling water is essential in many industries, including power generation, chemical manufacture and petroleum refineries. Biofilm formation on heat exchanger surfaces reduces heat transfer
Biofouling Control in Cooling Water
An important aspect of environmental engineering is the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel-fired power stations, for instance, represent a substantial contribution to this problem.