A renaissance of elicitors: perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns and danger signals by pattern-recognition receptors.
Current evidence indicates that MAMPs, DAMPs, and effectors are all perceived as danger signals and induce a stereotypic defense response, and the importance of MAMP/PRR signaling for plant immunity is highlighted.
MAP kinase signalling cascade in Arabidopsis innate immunity
An Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cell system based on the induction of early-defence gene transcription by flagellin, a highly conserved component of bacterial flagella that functions as a PAMP in plants and mammals is developed, suggesting that signalling events initiated by diverse pathogens converge into a conserved MAPK cascade.
Perception of the Bacterial PAMP EF-Tu by the Receptor EFR Restricts Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation
- C. Zipfel, Gernot Kunze, G. Felix
- 19 May 2006
A flagellin-induced complex of the receptor FLS2 and BAK1 initiates plant defence
- Delphine Chinchilla, C. Zipfel, T. Boller
- 26 July 2007
BAK1 is shown to have a functional role in PRR-dependent signalling, which initiates innate immunity, and evidence is provided that FLS2 and BAK1 form a complex in vivo, in a specific ligand-dependent manner, within the first minutes of stimulation with flagellin.
Plants have a sensitive perception system for the most conserved domain of bacterial flagellin.
It is demonstrated that plants have a highly sensitive chemoperception system for eubacterial flagellins, specifically targeted to the most highly conserved domain within its N terminus.
FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor flagellin in Arabidopsis.
- L. Gómez-Gómez, T. Boller
- Biology, Environmental ScienceMolecules and Cells
- 1 June 2000
Bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis through flagellin perception
- C. Zipfel, S. Robatzek, T. Boller
- Biology, Environmental ScienceNature
- 15 April 2004
It is shown that treatment of plants with flg22, a peptide representing the elicitor-active epitope of flagellin, induces the expression of numerous defence-related genes and triggers resistance to pathogenic bacteria in wild-type plants, but not in plants carrying mutations in the flageLLin receptor gene FLS2.
Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity
- M. V. D. Heijden, J. Klironomos, I. Sanders
- Environmental ScienceNature
- 5 November 1998
It is shown that below-ground diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a major factor contributing to the maintenance of plant biodiversity and to ecosystem functioning, and that microbial interactions can drive ecosystem functions such as plant biodiversity, productivity and variability.
Ligand-induced endocytosis of the pattern recognition receptor FLS2 in Arabidopsis.
- S. Robatzek, Delphine Chinchilla, T. Boller
- BiologyGenes & Development
- 1 March 2006
It is proposed that plant cells regulate pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-mediated PRR activities by subcellular compartmentalization.
The N Terminus of Bacterial Elongation Factor Tu Elicits Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis Plants
- Gernot Kunze, C. Zipfel, S. Robatzek, K. Niehaus, T. Boller, G. Felix
- Biology, Environmental ScienceThe Plant Cell Online
- 1 December 2004
It is shown that elongation factor Tu, the most abundant bacterial protein, acts as a PAMP in Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae, and an N-acetylated peptide comprising the first 18 amino acids, termed elf18, is fully active as inducer of defense responses.