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  • Influence
Addiction motivation reformulated: an affective processing model of negative reinforcement.
This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use.Expand
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A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison ofExpand
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A multiple motives approach to tobacco dependence: the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68).
The dependence construct fills an important explanatory role in motivational accounts of smoking and relapse. Frequently used measures of dependence are either atheoretical or grounded in aExpand
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Development and validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale.
The accurate assessment of nicotine withdrawal is important theoretically and clinically. A 28-item scale, the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale, was developed that contains 7 reliable subscalesExpand
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The Multiphase Optimization Strategy for Engineering Effective Tobacco Use Interventions
The multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) is a new methodological approach for building, optimizing, and evaluating multicomponent interventions. Conceptually rooted in engineering, MOST emphasizesExpand
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Time to first cigarette in the morning as an index of ability to quit smoking: implications for nicotine dependence.
An inability to maintain abstinence is a key indicator of tobacco dependence. Unfortunately, little evidence exists regarding the ability of the major tobacco dependence measures to predict smokingExpand
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The motivation to use drugs: a psychobiological analysis of urges.
Traditionally, theories of addiction have stressed that drug urges are characterized by dysphoria, occur in response to decreasing levels of drug or drug effect, and are associated with withdrawalExpand
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Prevalence and predictors of transitions in smoking behavior among college students.
The prevalence of smoking among college students is surprisingly high and represents a significant public health issue. However, there are few longitudinal studies of smoking in this population. ThisExpand
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A Candidate Gene Approach Identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 Region as a Risk Factor for Age-Dependent Nicotine Addiction
People who begin daily smoking at an early age are at greater risk of long-term nicotine addiction. We tested the hypothesis that associations between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) geneticExpand
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