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Predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures: a conceptual framework.
Environmental risks of chemicals are still often assessed substance-by-substance, neglecting mixture effects. This may result in risk underestimations, as the typical exposure is towardExpand
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Joint algal toxicity of 16 dissimilarly acting chemicals is predictable by the concept of independent action.
For a predictive assessment of the aquatic toxicity of chemical mixtures, two competing concepts are available: concentration addition and independent action. Concentration addition is generallyExpand
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Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) for Environmental Development and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance
Background: Only recently has the environment been clearly implicated in the risk of antibiotic resistance to clinical outcome, but to date there have been few documented approaches to formallyExpand
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Predictability of the toxicity of a multiple mixture of dissimilarly acting chemicals to Vibrio fischeri
A promising tool for the risk assessment of chemical mixtures is the prediction of their toxicities from the effects of the individual components. For that purpose, concentration addition isExpand
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Accurate Prediction of the Response of Freshwater Fish to a Mixture of Estrogenic Chemicals
Existing environmental risk assessment procedures are limited in their ability to evaluate the combined effects of chemical mixtures. We investigated the implications of this by analyzing theExpand
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Predicting the joint algal toxicity of multi-component s-triazine mixtures at low-effect concentrations of individual toxicants.
Herbicidal s-triazines are widespread contaminants of surface waters. They are highly toxic to algae and other primary producers in aquatic systems. This results from their specific interference withExpand
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Predictability of the toxicity of multiple chemical mixtures to Vibrio fischeri: Mixtures composed of similarly acting chemicals
The prediction of combined effects based on the effects of the individual components of mixtures by using the pharmacological concepts of concentration addition and independent action might be aExpand
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Toxicity of a mixture of dissimilarly acting substances to natural algal communities: predictive power and limitations of independent action and concentration addition.
Predictive studies of chemical mixtures are typically based on experiments with single species. To study the applicability of the concepts of independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA)Expand
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Application and validation of approaches for the predictive hazard assessment of realistic pesticide mixtures.
In freshwater systems located in agricultural areas, organisms are exposed to a multitude of toxicologically and structurally different pesticides. For regulatory purposes it is of major importanceExpand
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Heavy metal toxicity to Lemna minor: studies on the time dependence of growth inhibition and the recovery after exposure.
Environmental concentrations of toxic substances are not necessarily constant but fluctuate over time. Periods of intense exposure might be followed by episodes with a relatively low or no exposure,Expand
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