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Chemical mimicry and host specificity in the butterfly Maculinea rebeli, a social parasite of Myrmica ant colonies
Although caterpillars biosynthesized many of the recognition pheromones of their host species (chemical mimicry), they later acquired additional hydrocarbons within the ant nest (chemical camouflage), making them near–perfect mimics of their individual host colony–s odour.
Chemical strategies to deal with ants: a review of mimicry, camouflage, propaganda, and phytomimesis by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and other arthropods
Chemical tactics by ant social parasites, including myrmecophiles, often relate to ant nestmate recognition and alarm communication, and appropriate evaluation methods are necessary to evaluate the ant responses induced by the parasites to reveal the underlying mimetic strategy.
Interspecific differences in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of Myrmica ants are sufficiently consistent to explain host specificity by Maculinea (large blue) butterflies
It is concluded that the hydrocarbon profiles of Myrmica species are sufficiently and consistently different for chemical mimicry to explain the pattern of host specificity recorded for the European Maculinea butterflies.
Direct behavioral evidence for hydrocarbons as nestmate recognition cues in Formica japonica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
There is direct evidence that cuticular hydrocarbons are responsible for nestmate recognition in Formica japonica distributing in Southern Honshu in Japan and both n-alkanes and (Z)-9-alkenes are necessary to discriminate nestmates from foreign conspecifics.
Chemical camouflage of myrmecophilous cricket Myrmecophilus sp. to be integrated with several ant species
Chemical camouflage by myrmecophilous beetles Zyras comes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and Diaritiger fossulatus (Coleoptera: Pselaphidae) to be integrated into the nest of Lasius fuliginosus
GC analyses showed that both Z. comes and D. fossulatus appear to imitate the hydrocarbon profile of their host workers, allowing integrating into the host nest, and a Y-maze bioassay indicated that Z. come may detect other chemical signals of L. fuliginosus to keep closer interactions with the workers.
Cuticular hydrocarbons of Formica truncorum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Description of new very long chained hydrocarbon components
Cuticular hydrocarbons of Formica japonica mainly consisted of pairs of n-alkanes and alkenes from C23 to C33, but those of F. truncorum consisted of alkadienes, alkenes, n-alkanes, and methyl
Intraspecific Variation of Cuticular Hydrocarbon Composition in Formica japonica Motschoulsky (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
The occurrence of four distinct types of CHC composition suggests that the colonies that produce them are separate species, and is supported by a principal component analysis.