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We present our current understanding of the composition, vertical mixing, cloud structure and the origin of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Available observations point to a much more vigorous vertical mixing in Saturn's middle-upper atmosphere than in Jupiter's. The nearly cloud-free nature of the Galileo probe entry site, a 5-micron hotspot, is(More)
We report on the initial analysis of Herschel/HIFI carbon monoxide (CO) observations of the Martian atmosphere performed between 11 and 16 April 2010. We selected the (7–6) rotational transitions of the isotopes 13 CO at 771 GHz and C 18 O and 768 GHz in order to retrieve the mean vertical profile of temperature and the mean volume mixing ratio of carbon(More)
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