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Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) indicates the presence of less than 5 x 10(9)/L circulating monoclonal B cells in otherwise healthy subjects. Recently, it has been reported that circulating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like B cells can be detected using 4- or 5-multicolor flow cytometry in 5% to 7% of adults with normal lymphocyte counts. We(More)
OBJECTIVES Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge. The objective is to compare the intensity of ILI and ARI in some European countries. DESIGN AND SETTING Weekly ILI and ARI(More)
Objective: Spontaneous reporting is the most common method used in pharmacovigilance and the best one to generate signals on new or rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Under-reporting is a major drawback of this system. The objective of this study was to quantify the extent of under-reporting in general practice and to assess the factors which influence it.(More)
We reviewed the case definitions used by 21 influenza sentinel-based surveillance networks in Western Europe. Two clinical syndromes were used with a wide range of case definitions that nevertheless shared common criteria. Although there is currently no international consensus, efforts are being undertaken to standardise influenza case definitions in Europe.
BACKGROUND Timely influenza surveillance is important to monitor influenza epidemics. OBJECTIVES (i) To calculate the epidemic threshold for influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) in 19 countries, as well as the thresholds for different levels of intensity. (ii) To evaluate the performance of these thresholds. METHODS The(More)
The effects of four omega-toxins, known to block various subtypes of neuronal voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, on the beating guinea pig left atrium have been analyzed. Atria were suspended in oxygenated Krebs-bicarbonate solution at 32 degrees C and driven with electrical pulses delivered by a stimulator at 1 Hz, 1 ms, 4 V. A 10-fold increase of voltage(More)
We present early estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the population targeted for vaccination, during 25 December 2011 to 19 February 2012. The adjusted VE was 55% (95% CI: 3 to 79) against any type of influenza virus and 54% (95% CI: 1 to 79) against influenza A(H3N2) virus. This suggests a moderate protective effect of the vaccine in the(More)
BACKGROUND Patient delay was investigated in a cohort of TB patients identified from May 1996 until April 1997 in 13 Autonomous Regions in Spain. The study covered almost 67% of the total Spanish population. METHODS Data were collected from clinical records. Using unconditional logistic regression with two different cut-off points to define 'patient(More)
BACKGROUND Health system delay (HSD) is an important issue in tuberculosis (TB) control. This report investigates HSD and associated factors in a cohort of Spanish culture-confirmed TB patients. METHODS Data were collected from clinical records. Using logistic regression with two different cut-off points to define HSD (median and 75th percentile),(More)
BACKGROUND Physicians of the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System report and systematically swab patients attended to their practices for influenza-like illness (ILI). Within the surveillance system, some Spanish regions also participated in an observational study aiming at estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (cycEVA study). During the(More)