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A novel nonvolatile memory utilizing spin torque transfer magnetization switching (STS), abbreviated Spin-RAM hereafter, is presented for the first time. The Spin-RAM is programmed by magnetization reversal through an interaction of a spin momentum-torque-transferred current and a magnetic moment of memory layers in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), and(More)
Genetic linkage maps of the European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Bartlett' and the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Housui' were constructed based on AFLPs, SSRs from pear, apple and Prunus, isozymes and phenotypic traits by using their F1 progenies. The map of the female parent Bartlett consisted of 226 loci including 175 AFLPs, 49(More)
 The rice chitinase gene (RCC2), classified as class I chitinase, was introduced into the somatic embryos of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Neo Muscut) by Agrobacterium infection. After co-cultivation with Agrobacterium, somatic embryos were transferred onto Murashige and Skoog hormone-free medium supplemented with 50 mg/l kanamycin. Transformed secondary(More)
A new set of 148 apple microsatellite markers has been developed and mapped on the apple reference linkage map Fiesta x Discovery. One-hundred and seventeen markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched with the repeats GA, GT, AAG, AAC and ATC; 31 were developed from EST sequences. Markers derived from sequences containing dinucleotide repeats(More)
Apple simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were intergenerically applied to the characterization of 36 pear accessions, including 19 Japanese pears (Pyrus pyrifolia), 7 Chinese pears (P. bretschneideri, P. ussuriensis), 5 European pears (P. communis), 3 wild relatives (P. calleryana), and 2 hybrids between P. pyrifolia and P. communis. All of the tested SSR(More)
To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs), we used marker-assisted selection (MAS) to develop three nearly isogenic lines (NILs) differing only for the presence of a single, specific QTL (QTL-NILs) –Hd1, Hd2, and Hd3 – for heading date in rice. The three lines contained the chromosomal region of the target QTL from donor variety Kasalath(indica) in the(More)
The development of highly informative DNA markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), is essential for breeding to select agronomically important traits and for genetic studies in pear. We developed SSR markers by using two approaches, RAHM (random amplified hybridization microsatellites) and 5' anchored PCR methods. Segregation analysis of the SSRs(More)
 Fine mapping was carried out on three putative QTLs (tentatively designated as Hd-1 to Hd-3) of five such QTLs controlling heading date in rice that had been earlier identified using an F2 population derived from a cross between a japonica variety, ‘Nipponbare’, and an indica variety, ‘Kasalath’, using progeny backcrossed with ‘Nipponbare’ as the recurrent(More)
A trend in robotics is towards legged robots. One of the issues with legged robots is the development of gaits. Typically gaits are developed manually. In this paper we report our results of autonomous evolution of dynamic gaits for the Sony Quadruped Robot. Fitness is determined using the robot's digital camera and infrared sensors. Using this system we(More)
The functional interconnections between the cortical gustatory area (CGA) and the amygdala were examined by electrophysiological and behavioral experiments in rats. The cortical neurons responsive to taste stimuli applied to the anterior part of the tongue were located in the Vth layer of the agranular insular cortex. Of a total of 27 cortical neurons(More)