T. Wayne Schultz

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An estrogen-inducible bacterial lux-based bioluminescent reporter was developed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for applications in chemical sensing and environmental assessment of estrogen disruptor activity. The strain, designated S. cerevisiae BLYES, was constructed by inserting tandem estrogen response elements between divergent yeast promoters GPD and ADH1(More)
A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, capable of autonomous bioluminescence, was engineered to respond to androgenic chemicals. The strain, S. cerevisiae BLYAS, contains the human androgen receptor in the chromosome and was constructed by inserting a series of androgen response elements between divergent yeast promoters GPD and ADH1 on pUTK401 that(More)
This is the 52nd report of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The main objective of ECVAM, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences, and that reduce,(More)
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for the toxicity of 200 phenols to the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis, and the validation of the QSARs using a test set of a further 50 compounds, are reported. The phenols are structurally heterogeneous and represent a variety of mechanisms of toxic action including polar narcosis, weak acid(More)
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been utilized to validate toxicity data to Vibrio fisheri (the acute Microtox test) at each of the 5-, 15- and 30-min endpoints. Statistically robust QSARs were found for chemicals acting by a non-polar narcosis mechanism of action (MOA). The baseline, non-polar narcosis QSARs were similar to those(More)
Read across is a powerful tool to predict toxicity from structure: It relies on "obvious" chemical similarities to allow for interpolation of activity. This study has extended the read across concept within a known mechanism of action to be quantitative. The chemicals that have been chosen are skin sensitizers and are considered to elicit this response by(More)
Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process and shares chemical properties with natural and enriched uranium. To investigate the toxic effects of environmental DU exposure on the immune system, we examined the influences of DU (in the form of uranyl nitrate) on viability and immune function as well as cytokine gene expression in(More)
For toxicological-based structure-activity relationships to advance, will require a better understanding of molecular reactivity. A rapid and inexpensive spectrophotometric assay for determining the reactive to glutathione (GSH) was developed and used to determine GSH reactivity (reactGSH) data for 21 aliphatic derivatives of esters, ketones and aldehydes.(More)
Numerous quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been developed to predict properties, fate, and effects of mostly discrete organic chemicals. As the demand for different types of regulatory testing increases and the cost of experimental testing escalates, there is a need to evaluate the use of QSARs and provide some guidance to avoid(More)