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Wnt proteins influence many aspects of embryonic development, and their activity is regulated by several secreted antagonists, including the Xenopus Dickkopf-1 (xDkk-1) protein. xDkk-1 inhibits Wnt activities in Xenopus embryos and may play a role in induction of head structures. Here, we characterize a family of human Dkk-related genes composed of Dkk-1,(More)
The mouse tubby phenotype is characterized by maturity-onset obesity accompanied by retinal and cochlear degeneration. A positional cloning effort to find the gene responsible for this phenotype led to the identification of tub, a member of a novel gene family of unknown function. A splice defect mutation in the 3' end of the tub gene, predicted to disrupt(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), including the fly homologue Decapentaplegic (DPP), are important regulators of early vertebrate and invertebrate dorsal-ventral development. An evolutionarily conserved BMP regulatory mechanism operates from fly to fish, frog and mouse to control the dorsal-ventral axis determination. Several secreted factors, including(More)
Neurons containing the decapeptide GnRH originate in the olfactory placodes and migrate into the central nervous system during fetal development. The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been proposed as a trophic factor and may also influence neuronal migration. Immunocytochemical analyses were conducted in fetal rats, mice, and humans to(More)
Injuries to the vessel wall and subsequent exposure of collagen from the subendothelial matrix result in thrombus formation. In physiological conditions, the platelet plug limits blood loss. However, in pathologic conditions, such as rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, platelet-collagen interactions are associated with cardiovascular and cerebral vascular(More)
A mutation in the tub gene leads to maturity-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and progressive retinal and cochlear degeneration in mice. tub is a member of a growing family of genes that encode proteins of unknown function that are remarkably conserved across species. The absence of obvious transmembrane domain(s) or signal sequence peptide motif(s)(More)
Gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in vertebrates. The regulation of GnRH is intimately related to information from the olfactory system. Additionally, GnRH neurons are thought to be derived from progenitor cells in medial olfactory placodes. The present experiments were conducted to characterize the(More)
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulates adipose differentiation and systemic insulin signaling via ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of target genes. However, the identities of the biologically relevant target genes are largely unknown. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel target(More)
Members of the IL-1 family of cytokines are important in mediating inflammatory responses. The genes encoding IL-1alpha, IL-beta, and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) are clustered within 450 kb on human chromosome 2q. By searching the EST databases and sequencing this region of chromosome 2, we have identified three novel genes that show homology to(More)
Members of the epidermal growth factor family of receptors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of various tumors, and more recently, apparent roles in the developing heart and nervous system have been described. Numerous ligands that activate these receptors have been isolated. We report here on the cloning and initial characterization of a second(More)