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Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly, characterised by widespread loss of central cholinergic function. The only symptomatic treatment proven effective to date is the use of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors to augment surviving cholinergic activity. ChE inhibitors act on the enzymes that hydrolyse acetylcholine(More)
Like acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inactivates the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and is hence a viable therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by a cholinergic deficit. Potent, reversible, and brain-targeted BChE inhibitors (cymserine analogs) were developed based on binding domain structures to help(More)
Phenserine, a phenylcarbamate of physostigmine, is a new potent and highly selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, with a > 50-fold activity versus butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), in clinical trials for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compared to physostigmine and tacrine, it is less toxic and robustly enhances cognition in animal models.(More)
Current evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial disease that starts with accumulation of multiple proteins. We have previously proposed that inhibition of γ-secretase may impair membrane recycling causing neurodegeneration starting at synapses (Sambamurti K., Suram A., Venugopal C., Prakasam A., Zhou Y., Lahiri D. K. and Greig(More)
Abnormal deposition and accumulation of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein (A beta) and degeneration of forebrain cholinergic neurons are among the principal features of Alzheimer's disease. Studies in rat model systems have shown that forebrain cholinergic deficits are accompanied by induction of cortical beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) mRNAs and(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cerebrovascular deposition of the amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), which is derived from a larger beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP). Altered metabolism of beta APP, resulting in increased A beta production, appears central in the neuropathology of AD. The processing of the holoprotein beta APP by different(More)
Reports of an inverse relationship between nicotine intake, due to cigarette smoking, and the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prompted us to investigate the effects of nicotine on amyloid beta-protein precursor (AbetaPP) processing in rat. Over-production and/or altered metabolism of AbetaPP, resulting in increased amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), appear(More)
The extracellular deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in the form of cerebrovascular amyloid and extracellular plaques is one of the major neuropathological manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abeta is generated proteolytically from the large beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP is cleaved by a group of proteases called "secretase" to(More)
Crucial factors influencing the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis include pathogenesis and transmission. Detection of R. felis DNA in a number of arthropod species has been reported, with characterized isolates, R. felis strain LSU and strain LSU-Lb, generated from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, and the non-hematophagous booklouse,(More)