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In patients with Alzheimer's disease, hippocampal cells are among the first neuronal cells of the brain to degenerate. Both rat primary hippocampal neurons and cells of the clonal mouse hippocampal cell line HT22 express endogenous functional glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), as shown by transient transfection of cells with a luciferase reporter plasmid(More)
Applying the recently developed DNA array technique to a murine stroke model, we found that the gene coding for RhoB, a member of the family of GTPases that regulate a variety of signal transduction pathways, is upregulated in ischemia-damaged neurons. RhoB immunoreactivity precedes DNA single-strand breaks and heralds the evolving infarct, making it an(More)
In addition to the well-known genomic effects of steroid molecules via intracellular steroid receptors, certain steroids rapidly alter neuronal excitability through binding sites on neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Several of these steroids accumulate in the brain after local synthesis or after metabolization of adrenal steroids. The 3 alpha-hydroxy(More)
Several 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids accumulate in the brain after local synthesis or after metabolization of steroids that are provided by the adrenals. The 3 alpha-hydroxy ring A-reduced pregnane steroids allopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone are believed not to interact with intracellular receptors, but enhance GABA-mediated chloride currents.(More)
In the mammalian central nervous system, responsiveness to glucocorticoids is mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These pharmacologically distinct receptors are believed to bind to common response elements as homodimers. We provide evidence that MR and GR can form a heterodimeric complex with(More)
Free radicals and oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. Therefore, neuroprotection is of primary interest in basic and preclinical neuroscience. Here it is shown that RU486 (mifepristone), a potent antagonist of progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors, protects rat primary hippocampal(More)
In the absence of serum and estrogen, we show that the growth of the prolactin secreting pituitary tumour cell line, GH3 is stimulated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and this response is blocked by the steroidal antiestrogens, ICI 164384 and ICI 182780. From conditioned medium (CM) experiments, growth of low density cells (10k/cm2) is(More)
Statins are lipid-lowering drugs that have been shown to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that long-term treatment with statins has unwanted effects on extrahepatic tissue and increases the risk for neuropathy. To investigate underlying molecular mechanisms we(More)
This study used an in vivo canine model to investigate the effects of varying vocal fold resistance by electrically stimulating the recurrent laryngeal nerve while monitoring medial adductory compression of the vocal folds, glottal airflow, and vocal intensity. The effects of increasing airflow on glottal vibration were also examined stroboscopically and by(More)