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Individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome carry inherited mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and are predisposed to tumor development. To examine the mechanistic nature of these p53 missense mutations, we generated mice harboring a G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 515 of p53 (p53+/515A) corresponding to the p53R175H hot spot mutation in human cancers.(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor is often disrupted in human cancers by the acquisition of missense mutations. We generated mice with a missense mutation at codon 172 that mimics the p53R175H hot spot mutation in human cancer. p53 homozygous mutant mice have unstable mutant p53 in normal cells and stabilize mutant p53 in some but not all tumors. To investigate the(More)
The effect of p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and senescence on Emu-myc-induced B-cell lymphoma development remains controversial. To address this question, we crossed Emu-myc mice with the p53(515C) mutant mouse, encoding the mutant p53R172P protein that retains the ability to activate the cell-cycle inhibitor and senescence activator p21. Importantly,(More)
The tumor suppressor p53 is inactivated by multiple mechanisms that include mutations of the p53 gene itself and increased levels of the p53 inhibitors MDM2 and MDM4. Mice lacking Mdm2 or Mdm4 exhibit embryo-lethal phenotypes that are completely rescued by concomitant deletion of p53. Here we show that Mdm2 and Mdm4 haploinsufficiency leads to increased p53(More)
Mdm2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, negatively regulates the tumour suppressor p53. Loss of Mdm2 in mice results in p53-dependent apoptosis and embryonic lethality. This phenotype was rescued by the p53(515C) allele, which encodes an apoptosis-deficient p53R172P protein. However, these mice died within 2 weeks of birth, due to a severe impairment of progenitor(More)
The transcription factor p53 is a tumor suppressor. As such, the P53 gene is frequently altered in human cancers. However, over 80% of the P53 mutations found in human cancers are missense mutations that lead to expression of mutant proteins that not only lack p53 transcriptional activity but exhibit new functions as well. Recent studies show that(More)
p53 levels are tightly regulated in normal cells, and thus, the wild-type p53 protein is nearly undetectable until stimulated through a variety of stresses. In response to stress, p53 is released from its negative regulators, mainly murine double minute 2 (Mdm2), allowing p53 to be stabilized to activate cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis(More)
The ability of p53 to regulate transcription is crucial for tumor suppression and implies that inherited polymorphisms in functional p53-binding sites could influence cancer. Here, we identify a polymorphic p53 responsive element and demonstrate its influence on cancer risk using genome-wide data sets of cancer susceptibility loci, genetic variation, p53(More)
Mdm2 inhibits the function of the p53 tumor suppressor. Mdm2 is overexpressed in many tumors with wild-type p53 suggesting an alternate mechanism of loss of p53 activity in tumors. An Mdm2-binding protein (MTBP) was identified using a yeast two-hybrid screen. In tissue culture, MTBP inhibits Mdm2 self-ubiquitination, leading to stabilization of Mdm2 and(More)
p53 has a central role in skin pigmentation and may impact on melanoma at all stages, however, as it's mutation frequency in melanoma is low, it's role has been somewhat under-appreciated. During normal skin function, p53 in the keratinocyte is a transducer of the skin tanning signal and an essential component of what is effectively a(More)