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A critical function of tumor suppressor p53 is the induction of apoptosis in cells exposed to noxious stresses. We report a previously unidentified pro-apoptotic gene, Noxa. Expression of Noxa induction in primary mouse cells exposed to x-ray irradiation was dependent on p53. Noxa encodes a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins;(More)
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human autosomal recessive cancer susceptibility disorder characterized by cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C and ionizing radiation. Although six FA genes (for subtypes A, C, D2, E, F, and G) have been cloned, their relationship to DNA repair remains unknown. In the current study, we show that a nuclear complex containing the(More)
Bone resorption is regulated by the immune system, where T-cell expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor family that is essential for osteoclastogenesis, may contribute to pathological conditions, such as autoimmune arthritis. However, whether activated T cells maintain bone(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved eukaryotic signaling module that converts receptor signals into various outputs. MAPK is activated through phosphorylation by MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which is first activated by MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK). A genetic selection based on a MAPK pathway in yeast was used to identify a mouse protein(More)
Induction of the interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta gene transcription in virus-infected cells is an event central to innate immunity. Mice lacking the transcription factor IRF-3 are more vulnerable to virus infection. In embryonic fibroblasts, virus-induced IFN-alpha/beta gene expression levels are reduced and the spectrum of the IFN-alpha mRNA subspecies(More)
Viral infections commonly induce expression of type I interferon (IFN) genes. The induction is transient and involves transcriptional activation wherein a positive factor, IRF-1, binds to upstream regulatory cis elements. In the present study we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel factor, termed IRF-2, that interacts with the same nucleotide(More)
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease with birth defects, bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. To date, genes for five of the seven known complementation groups have been cloned. Complementation group D is heterogeneous, consisting of two distinct genes, FANCD1 and FANCD2. Here we report the positional cloning of FANCD2. The gene consists of(More)
Expression of the interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene is induced by a variety of agents, including viruses. Evidence has been provided that a mouse nuclear factor, termed interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), specifically binds to the upstream regulatory region of the human IFN-beta gene and mediates virus-induced transcription of the gene. In this study, we(More)
Graphene devices on standard SiO(2) substrates are highly disordered, exhibiting characteristics that are far inferior to the expected intrinsic properties of graphene. Although suspending the graphene above the substrate leads to a substantial improvement in device quality, this geometry imposes severe limitations on device architecture and functionality.(More)
The proliferation and differentiation of cells of many lineages are regulated by secreted proteins known as cytokines. Cytokines exert their biological effect through binding to cell-surface receptors that are associated with one or more members of the JAK family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Cytokine-induced receptor dimerization leads to the activation(More)