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Sciadonic acid (SCA; Δ5,11,14-20:3), a non-methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acid (NMIFA), can substitute for arachidonic acid (AA) and reduce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in macrophages. However, little is known about how SCA exerts its anti-inflammatory effects. The objectives of this study were to purify SCA from seeds of Podocarpus nagi(More)
This paper examines the feasibility of using Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) to measure aerosols. The extinction spectra of water, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate aerosols were first simulated with various particle size distributions (geometric mean ranged from 2 to 10 microm; geometric standard deviation ranged from 1.1(More)
This study investigated PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in order to determine the seasonal changes in total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentrations and to identify contamination sources by using a positive matrix factorization model, a conditional probability function, and characteristic ratios of PAHs in Hsinchu. The sampling(More)
Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles of various sizes from smoldering incenses was determined. Among the three types of incense investigated, yielding the total PAH emission rate and factor ranges for PM0.25 were 2,139.7-6,595.6 ng/h and 1,762.2-8,094.9 ng/g, respectively. The PM0.25/PM2.5 ratio of total PAH emission factors and(More)
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in particulate and gas phases generated from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic H/C ratios were examined. Five types of mosquito coils were burned in a test chamber with a total airflow rate of 8.0 L/min at a constant relative humidity and temperature. The concentrations of individual PAHs were(More)
This paper provides new evidence on how families adjust their labor supply in response to the receipt of an anticipated cash transfer. In particular, I exploit the unique disbursement timing and benefit rules of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) to assess the effect of the receipt of a cash transfer on the timing of family labor supply. My results show(More)
This study characterized the effects of smoldering incenses and combustion conditions on gaseous pollutant yields. Incense comes in three types: non-smoke (A), reduced-smoke (B) and traditional-smoke incense (C and D). Each incense type was burned in a test chamber with various combustion conditions (airflow rate and relative humidity). An extractive(More)
Taiwanese Labor, Government Employee, and Farmer Insurance programs provide 5-6 months of salary to enrollees who undergo hysterectomy or oophorectomy before their 45 birthday. These programs result in more and earlier treatments, referred as, respectively, inducement and timing effects. Difference-indifference and nonparametric methods are used to estimate(More)